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Vitamin K


Average daily intake

Nutrition Investigator linked dosage

Hazardous level

men 51+

80 mcg

70-100 mcg but low in many adults

360 to 500 mcg


women 51+

65 mcg

70-100 mcg but low in many adults

360 to 500 mcg


Vitamin: K
Vitamins D and K help cardiac rhythm. Vitamin K activates the protein osteocalcin, which strengthens bone mass, but decalcifies soft tissues like arterial walls reducing blood pressure. (link: vitamin D and vitamin K; blood pressure; source: LPI meeting 2009; added 6/2009)

A recent study found that patients with early-stage Alzheimer's disease consumed less vitamin K than did cognitively intact control subjects. (J Am Diet Assoc. 2008 Dec;108(12):2095-9). (Link: vitamin K and Alzheimers; Source: Alzheimers newsletter:; added 6/2009)

Daily Value: none (80 mcg RDA males; 65 mcg females)

Hazardous level: safe at more than 10xRDA

Average intake in US diet: 70-100 mcg

Function: name for a group of compounds which are essential for the formation of prothrombin and at least five other proteins involved in blood clotting. SINCE 2009, it has been learned that vitamin K at levels above the Daily Value has many other important functions, activating and carboxylating a variety of proteins involved in calcium regulation. In particular, it activates calcitonin, an enzyme that decalifies arteries, lowering blood pressure, relieving much hazard from plaque, and able to reduce heart disease risk in the US by 30 to 50%. See Linus Pauling meeting notes of 2009.

DOSAGE RATIONALE: Vit K comes from green leafy veggies. US intake is 70-100 mcg daily, daily value is 120 mcg, have just discovered the true requirement for health is 360 to 500 mcg daily. (cooked spinach has 888 mcg, but peas have only 48, chicken has 2.)
Dietary vit K reduces heart disease 50%. Reduces kidney disease risk. 360 mcg daily reverses aortic and arterial calcification which cause heart disease and high blood pressure. Vit K may remove calcium from ears restoring hearing and sense of balance in elderly. Warfarin is the most prescribed drug and a major cause of heart disease! Warfarin (Coumadin) blocks vit K recycling causing major deficiency.


1. Jeffrey B Blumberg et al, Effect of vitamin E supplementation on vitamin K status in adults with normal coagulation status
Am J Clin Nutr 2004 80: 143-148

Notes from (3): Elevated doses of vitamin E have an anticoagulant effect when vitamin K intake is low. Average vitamin K intake among US adults is low. Since vitamin E is the most frequently purchased single nutrient supplement in the US, this might be a concern. However, high vitamin E intakes did not alter coagulation times in healthy adults. The results of the study left unlcear whether high dose vitamin E is beneficial or harmful in its interactdion with vitamin K and coagulation.

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