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November Advances in Nutritrion from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Happy Thanksgiving if you are in the US - it was really hard to find a turkey when I took my class to Israel and Egypt.  Here are notes from Advances in Nutrition of November 2017. I missed September while working on my NIH proposal to prevent cancer, so I will send that shortly.

Epidemiologic studies suggest that yogurt consumption is linked to healthy dietary patterns, lifestyles, and reduced risk of cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), particularly type 2 diabetes. Yogurt is a nutrient-dense dairy food and has been suggested to reduce weight gain and prevent CMDs by contributing to intakes of protein, calcium, bioactive lipids, and several other micronutrients. In addition, fermentation with bacterial strains generates bioactive peptides, resulting in a potentially greater beneficial effect of yogurt on metabolic health than nonfermented dairy products such as milk.

Cardiovascular and Antiobesity Effects of Resveratrol Mediated through the Gut Microbiota.  Resveratrol can modulate gut microbiota composition, undergo biotransformation to active metabolites via the intestinal microbiota, or affect gut barrier function.  By upregulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining tight junctions between intestinal cells, resveratrol contributes to gut barrier integrity. Resveratrol may affect cardiovascular risk factors such as elevated blood cholesterol or trimethylamine N-oxide concentrations. Modulating the composition of the gut microbiota by resveratrol may affect central energy metabolism and modify concentrations of satiety hormones to produce antiobesity effects. 

Adult neurogenesis, a complex process by which stem cells in the hippocampal brain region differentiate and proliferate into new neurons and other resident brain cells, is known to be affected by many intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including diet. Neurogenesis plays a critical role in neural plasticity, brain homeostasis, and maintenance in the central nervous system and is a crucial factor in preserving the cognitive function and repair of damaged brain cells affected by aging and brain disorders. Intrinsic factors such as aging, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and brain injury, as well as lifestyle factors such as high-fat and high-sugar diets and alcohol and opioid addiction, negatively affect adult neurogenesis. Conversely, many dietary components such as curcumin, resveratrol, blueberry polyphenols, sulforaphane, salvionic acid, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and diets enriched with polyphenols and PUFAs, as well as caloric restriction, physical exercise, and learning, have been shown to induce neurogenesis in adult brains.
 
The key to preventing brain aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD) via vitamin intake is first to understand molecular mechanisms, then to deduce relevant biomarkers, and subsequently to test the level of evidence for the impact of vitamins in the relevant pathways and their modulation of dementia risk.  It is notable that B vitamins are involved as cofactors in all of the core pathways or pathologies and, together with vitamins C and E, are consistently associated with a protective role against dementia.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the evidence on the relation of the intakes of 12 major food groups, including whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) with the risk of hypertension. An inverse association for the risk of hypertension was observed for 30 g whole grains/d, 100 g fruits/d, 28 g nuts/d), and 200 g dairy/d, whereas a positive association for 100 g red meat/d, 50 g processed meat/d, and 250 mL sugar-sweetened beverages/d.

Natural Forms of Vitamin E as Effective Agents for Cancer Prevention and Therapy. Other forms of vitamin E, such as γ-tocopherol (γT), δ-tocopherol (δT), γ-tocotrienol (γTE), and δ-tocotrienol (δTE), have far superior cancer-preventive activities than does αT.  This review focuses on cancer-preventive effects and mechanisms of γT, δT, γTE, and δTE in cells and preclinical models and discusses current progress in clinical trials. The existing evidence strongly indicates that these lesser-known vitamin E forms are effective agents for cancer prevention or as adjuvants for improving prevention, therapy, and control of cancer.

The food system is a major source of environmental impact, and dietary change has been recommended as an important and necessary strategy to reduce this impact. Compared with the 14 discrete environmental areas of concern identified in the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, the located journal literature mainly addressed greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and, to a lesser extent, land and water use. In the case of GHG emissions, changes in land use and soil carbon stocks were seldom considered.  The limited evidence generally points to recommended diets having lower environmental impacts than typical diets, although not in every case. This is largely explained by the overconsumption of food energy associated with average diets, which is also a major driver of obesity. 

LINK to Table of Contents for Advances in Nutrition where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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Satisfaction of one‘s curiosity is one of the greatest sources of happiness in life.-Linus Pauling

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