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May Advances in Nutritrion from Roc Nutrition Investigator

How fructose triggers obesity. Fructose-containing added sugars, such as sucrose and high-fructose corn syrup, have been experimentally, epidemiologically, and clinically shown to be involved in the current epidemics of obesity and diabetes. These studies suggest that fructose-induced obesity is driven by engagement of a “fat switch” and provide novel insights into new approaches for the prevention and treatment of these important diseases.

Capsaicin, resveratrol, curcumin, green tea, berberine, and dietary fatty acids (e.g., fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids) increase brown fat and cause weight loss. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized fat tissue that has a high capacity to dissociate cellular respiration from ATP utilization, resulting in the release of stored energy as heat. BAT activity in humans is inversely correlated with adiposity. We summarized the thermogenic function of selected phytochemicals (e.g., capsaicin (∼10 mg/d), resveratrol, curcumin(50 or 100 mg/kg), green tea(583 mg catechins), and berberine(5 mg/kg body weight), dietary fatty acids (e.g., fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids).

Constipation is a common and burdensome gastrointestinal disorder that may result from altered gastrointestinal motility. The effect of probiotics on constipation has been increasingly investigated in both animal and human studies, showing promising results.  Adults with functional constipation have significantly decreased numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.

The potential health benefits of diet-induced weight loss are thought to be compromised by the weight-loss–associated loss of lean body mass, which could increase the risk of sarcopenia (low muscle mass and impaired muscle function). We therefore conclude that weight-loss therapy, including a hypocaloric diet with adequate (but not excessive) protein intake and increased physical activity (particularly resistance-type exercise), should be promoted to maintain muscle mass and improve muscle strength and physical function in persons with obesity.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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