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AJCN Jan, 2017 from Roc Nutrition Investigator
As Nutrition reviews comes out alternate months, I am sending notes on AJCN to remind you of healthy choices from peer-reviewed journals for January.

EVERYONE
Water intake does not influence lifespan.  There was no survival advantage in association with higher total or plain water intake in men or women in this national cohort.

Obesity is a major challenge to maintaining health (1) and is associated with the metabolic syndrome, whose components include diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia (23).  When considering therapeutic options for the obese patient, a linchpin in management is exercise (56). To have a better chance for success, exercise is coupled with dietary modifications.  A major concern of exercise is injury.
            Getting protein and vitamin C shortly after exercise may have benefits.  Providing more amino acid substrates via the gelatin nutritional intervention increased bone collagen synthesis in vivo after exercise in a dose-dependent fashion. It is tempting to conclude that increased mechanical effects in the ligaments were a consequence of the 48 mg vitamin C consumed in the beverage, but there was no control.

The consumption of ≥0.5 servings of total red meat/d does not influence blood lipids and lipoproteins or blood pressures.  

Resistance exercise increases muscle mass and function in older adults, but responses are attenuated compared with younger people. Long-chain n–3 PUFA supplementation augments increases in muscle function and quality in older women but not in older men after resistance exercise training. 

More fruit, veggie, and dairy intake lowers risk of fractured bones.  The fruit, vegetables, and dairy pattern might be associated with lower fracture risk because of high BMD, high bending strength, and more stable bones. The sweets, animal fat, and low meat pattern might be associated with higher fracture risk because of widened, unstable bones, independently of BMD.

OBESITY

In isocaloric diets, it did not matter for weight loss whether calories were from carbohydrate or fat.

Once you are obese, your intestinal permeability is seriously permanent damaged, though weight loss improves some functions
Improved hygiene that leads to a reduced exposure to micro-organisms has been implicated as one possible cause for the “epidemic” of chronic inflammatory and metabolic diseases in industrialized countries during the past 3–4 decades. a third key element, increased intestinal permeability, which may be influenced by the composition of the gut microbiota, has been proposed in the pathogenesis of these diseases (1).  A specific microbiota composition highly influenced by a Western diet and characterized by a decreased ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes or an increase in specific microbiota species has been described (2). It is becoming increasingly evident from animal studies and metagenomic and metabolomic studies that, in obesity, a specific gut microbiota may be responsible for a more efficient intestinal absorption of calories and increased lipid deposition by the digestion and absorption of plant polysaccharides that are usually poorly digestible (3), which influences body weight and interferes with metabolic changes. Studies in children have shown that the success of specific dietary interventions to lose weight are dependent on the type of initial host microbiota, and that the microbiota in childhood is strongly influenced by the type of delivery, the neonatal feeding regimen, and the exposure to antibiotics (4).
In mice, a high-fat diet reduced Bifidobacteria and increased plasma concentrations of LPS and liver fat. The access of LPS and other endotoxins to the intestinal lamina propria initiates a mucosal immune response that causes chronic low-grade inflammation and possible liver insult, triggering metabolic disorders.  The persistent high concentrations of endotoxins after dietary intervention suggest ongoing antigen trafficking through an impaired gut barrier.  A microbiota-driven, zonulin-dependent pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders leading to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, insulin resistance, and obesity in genetically susceptible individuals 

CHILDREN
Children with more omega-3 (fish) and less omega-6 (4-legged meat) in their diets have better thinking to solve problems.  There was also an interaction between the plasma n–6:n–3 ratio and n–3 predicting time spent thinking through the difficult 5-move planning problems. Dietary and plasma n–6:n–3 ratio and n–3 predicted performance on working memory and planning tasks in children 7–12 y old.  The n–6:n–3 ratio is an important consideration in the role of FAs in cognitive function, and the optimal balance of n–6 and n–3 FAs depends on the cognitive function and developmental period studied.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for AJCN where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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The message of Voltaire and Pangloss is, “in the face of a Heaven known to be decidedly unbenevolent, it takes unrelenting, thankless, and almost ill-rewarded work to cultivate happiness here on earth”…-New Yorker 9/21/15 pg 104

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