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SUBJECT: Advances in Nutrition Feb, 2017 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Dietary interventions reduce risk and progression of macular degeneration: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of vision loss in the elderly. With an increasingly aged population worldwide, the need for the prevention of AMD is rising. Multiple studies investigating AMD with the use of animal models and cell culture have identified oxidative stress–related retinal damage as an important contributing factor. In general, diet is an excellent source of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals necessary for healthy living; moreover, the general public is often receptive to recommendations made by physicians and health care workers regarding diet and supplements as a means of empowering themselves to avoid common and worrisome ailments such as AMD, which has made epidemiologists and clinicians enthusiastic about dietary intervention studies. A wide variety of nutrients, such as minerals, vitamins, ω-3 (n–3) fatty acids, and various carotenoids, have been associated with reducing the risk of AMD. Initial results from the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) indicated that supplementation with antioxidants (β-carotene and vitamins C and E) and zinc was associated with a reduced risk of AMD progression. The AREDS2 follow-up study, designed to improve upon the earlier formulation, tested the addition of lutein, zeaxanthin, and ω-3 fatty acids. 

Yogurt should be included as part of the functional foods recommended to everyone. The prevention or attenuation of gut microbiota dysbiosis is now associated with improvements observed in individuals with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.  There are inverse associations between yogurt consumption and changes in waist circumference, changes in weight, risk of overweight or obesity, and risk of metabolic syndrome. Substituting high-energy, nutrient-deficient snacks with fruit and yogurt could reduce the intake of high-calorie obesogenic foods.

Our aim was to assess the efficacy of dietary supplements in the primary prevention of cause-specific death, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Supplements containing vitamin E significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality risk, whereas supplements with folic acid reduced the risk of heart disease. Vitamins D, C, and K; selenium; zinc; magnesium; and eicosapentaenoic acid showed no significant risk reduction for any of the outcomes. On the contrary, vitamin A was linked to an increased cancer risk. Supplements with β-carotene showed no significant effect; however, in the subgroup with β-carotene given singly, an increased risk of all-cause mortality by 6%  was observed.

Fructose is associated with the biochemical alterations that promote the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes. It is metabolized by the liver, where it stimulates de novo lipogenesis. The triglycerides synthesized lead to hepatic insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Fructose-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be involved.

A projected doubling in the global population of people aged ≥60 y by the year 2050 has major health and economic implications, especially in developing regions. Burdens of unhealthy aging associated with chronic noncommunicable and other age-related diseases may be largely preventable with lifestyle modification, including diet.  This review highlights the role of nutrition science in promoting healthy aging and in improving the prognosis in cases of age-related diseases. This review also discusses management recommendations for several leading chronic conditions common in aging populations, including cognitive decline and dementia, sarcopenia, and compromised immunity to infectious disease.

In this study we aimed to conduct a scoping review of the literature that assessed the impact of dietary patterns (derived with the use of both a priori and data-driven approaches) on bone outcomes, including bone mineral status, bone biomarkers, osteoporosis, and fracture risk. A dietary pattern that emphasized the intake of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, poultry and fish, nuts and legumes, and low-fat dairy products and de-emphasized the intake of soft drinks, fried foods, meat and processed products, sweets and desserts, and refined grains showed a beneficial impact on bone health.

MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. In fact, several miRs are actively regulated in response to overnutrition and tissue inflammation, and are involved in facilitating the development of chronic inflammation by modulating tissue-infiltrated immune cell function.

LINK to Table of Contents for Advances in Nutrition where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
*To be added or removed from the nutrition research Email List . *To review the disclaimer*To ask Roc a question.
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