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SUBJECT: AJCN Feb, 2017 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Greetings. As mentioned, I am now reviewing Advances in Nutrition, rather than AJCN and J Nutrition, as reviews provide more confidence in their conclusions to guide our choices to attain a greater healthspan.

Gluten causes unpleasant symptoms in people who do not have celiacs.  Nonceliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) refers to a clinical phenotype in which patients experience intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to ingesting a gluten-containing diet after a diagnosis of celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy has been excluded. 

Getting plenty of DHA (in fish oil) is vital to your brain, eyes, and offspring.  The strongest evidence for a benefit of DHA relates to its unique role in cognitive and visual development and function. DHA is accumulated rapidly in the brain and eye during gestation and early infancy and is essential for the growth and maturation of the infant’s brain and retina.
 DHA is found in high concentrations in neuronal cell membrane phospholipids, where it can exert many physiologic roles including regulation of membrane fluidity, neurotransmitter release, gene expression, myelination, and cell differentiation and growth (1). Considering the low rate of de novo DHA synthesis from ALA, many researchers agree that DHA is required in the diet in order to reach and maintain adequate brain and eye DHA concentrations and related neurologic and visual functions,

Benefits of dietary fiber extend far beyond the intestines.  Increased dietary fiber (DF) intake elicits a wide range of physiologic effects, not just locally in the gut, but systemically. These gut-associated changes can then alter the physiology and biochemistry of the body’s other main nutrient management and detoxification organs, the liver and kidneys. The molecular mechanisms by which DF alters the physiology of the gut, liver, and kidneys is likely through gut-localized events (i.e., bacterial nitrogen metabolism, microbe-microbe, and microbe–host cell interactions) coupled with specific factors that emanate from the gut in response to DF, which signal to or affect the physiology of the liver and kidneys.

The gut microbiota may influence energy homeostasis in relation to malnutrition and obesity, so eat a healthy diet and yogurt

Dairy fat does not seem hazardous, so eat whole milk and cheese. This comprehensive assessment of evidence from RCTs suggests that there is no apparent risk of potential harmful effects of dairy consumption, irrespective of the content of dairy fat, on a large array of cardiometabolic variables, including lipid-related risk factors, blood pressure, inflammation, insulin resistance, and vascular function.

A systematic review of meta-analyses of prospective population studie was done. Increasing dairy consumption reduces risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and type 2 diabetes (T2D).  There were favorable associations between total dairy intake and hypertension risk and between low-fat dairy and yogurt intake and the risk of T2D. Moderate-quality evidence suggests favorable associations between intakes of total dairy, low-fat dairy, cheese, and fermented dairy and the risk of stroke; intakes of low-fat dairy and milk and the risk of hypertension; total dairy and milk consumption and the risk of MetS; and total dairy and cheese and the risk of T2D.

We found an inverse association between whole-grain intake and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and total cancers.

The relations between dietary intake patterns and both health and environmental outcomes were compared across studies. A dietary pattern higher in plant-based foods (e.g., vegetables, fruits, legumes, seeds, nuts, whole grains) and lower in animal-based foods (especially red meat), as well as lower in total energy, is both healthier and associated with a lesser impact on the environment.  Mediterranean-style diets, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, and other sustainable diet scenarios, promote greater health and have a less negative impact on the environment than current average dietary intakes.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for Advances in Nutrition where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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