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SUBJECT: Nov JNutr via Roc Nutrition Newsletter
Cocoa flavanol intake has favorable effects on select cardiometabolic biomarkers among adults.

Greater consumption of flavanones, found mainly in citrus, but not total or other flavonoid subclasses, was inversely associated with incident ischemic stroke. Associations did not differ by sex, race, or region for the association.

The improvement in diastolic blood pressure was >3-fold greater in overweight and obese adults when they consumed a whole-grain compared with a refined-grain diet.

Vitamin D deficiency is widespread in pregnancy and has been associated with adverse health conditions in mothers and infants.  Supplementation with 2000 IU/d vitamin D had a greater effect on the change in vitamin D status over pregnancy.  Supplementation with 2000 IU/d is more effective at increasing vitamin D status in pregnant women than 400 IU/d and is associated with increased regulatory T cell immunity that may prevent adverse outcomes caused by excess inflammation.

The early postnatal period is critical for immunity, and feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been demonstrated to benefit immune development.  Feeding additional DHA during suckling had a beneficial programming effect on the ability of immune cells to produce IFN-γ and IL-10, and feeding DHA during weaning resulted in a lower inflammatory response. Providing no dietary DHA in either of the critical periods of immune development prevented the establishment of OT in female rat offspring.

A higher intake of protein, especially animal protein, at 1 y of age was associated with a greater height, weight, and BMI in childhood up to 9 y of age.

Pregnant diet of white bread, red and processed meats, fried chicken, french fries, and vitamin C–rich drinks leads to obese children. Three patterns were identified: 1) fruits, vegetables, refined grains, red and processed meats, pizza, french fries, sweets, salty snacks, and soft drinks (latent class 1); 2) fruits, vegetables, baked chicken, whole-wheat bread, low-fat dairy, and water (latent class 2); and 3) white bread, red and processed meats, fried chicken, french fries, and vitamin C–rich drinks (latent class 3). In crude analyses, the latent class 3 diet was associated with a higher BMI-for-age zscore at 1 and 3 y of age and a higher risk of overweight or obesity at 3 y of age than was the latent class 2 diet. 
LINK to Table of Contents for Jrnl of Nutrition where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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