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AJCN Nov, 2016 from Roc Nutrition Investigator
An important study published in the current issue reports on the association between dairy fat consumption and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), coronary heart disease (CHD), and stroke with the use of data from 3 large US cohorts (5,158,337 person-years of follow-up). The authors’ conclusion was that dairy fat intake was not significantly associated with the risk of total CVD, CHD, and stroke, but replacing energy from dairy fat with PUFA-rich fat and whole-grain carbohydrates (but not refined starch and sugar) was associated with a significantly lower risk of CVD, CHD, and stroke. Cheese lowered LDL cholesterol, and to a lesser extent HDL cholesterol, relative to butter, despite similar amounts of dairy fat. Dairy products are key sources of other nutrients, including protein, calcium, iodine, and vitamins B-2 (riboflavin) and B-12.

Potato consumption was not associated with the risk of CVD in Swedish adults

High dietary Glycemic intake and load, primarily due to high intakes of refined grains, are associated with increased risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke

Higher intakes of total and animal protein were both associated with increased risks of type 2 diabetes, whereas higher plant protein intake tended to be associated with lower risk of T2D.

2015 dietary guidelines reduce risk for obesity.

Inadequate nutrition during hospitalization is strongly associated with poor patient outcome.

Mediterranean diet decreases pain, disability, and depression. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with better quality of life and decreased pain, disability, and depressive symptoms.  4470 participants (2605 women; mean age: 61.3 y).

100min/d 3xweek gives 20 lbs weight loss to women in 24 weeks.  Women 18-40 lost 20 lbs with 100 min/d 3xweek exercise for 24 weeks.  Weekly exercise undertaken over fewer sessions of longer duration could be more effective for weight loss [9.58 ± 3.77 kg] than when undertaken as more frequent shorter sessions in overweight and obese women on a weight loss program. The HF group included 50 min/d PA, 6 d/wk (300 min/wk). The LF group included 100 min/d PA, 3 d/wk (300 min/wk). 

Even light exercise has great benefits. In less-active adults, replacing 1 h of sedentary time with either light- or moderate-to-vigorous–intensity activity was associated with 18% and 42% lower mortality over 7 yrs, respectively. Health promotion efforts for physical activity have mostly focused on moderate-to-vigorous activity. However, our findings derived from accelerometer-based measurements suggest that increasing light-intensity activity and reducing sedentary time are also important, particularly for inactive adults.

Ultraprocessed food consumption was associated with a higher risk of overweight and obesity in middle-aged adult university graduates.

Reported anthocyanidin and proanthocyanidin intakes were inversely associated with incident coronary heart disease. There was no significant effect modification by age, sex, race, or region of residence.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for AJCN where you can read all abstracts

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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