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SUBJECT: Oct JNutr via Roc Nutrition Newsletter

IN THE US, PLEASE VOTE: Severity of Household Food Insecurity Is Positively Associated with Mental Disorders among Children and Adolescents in the United States.

Nutrigenomics at the Interface of Aging, Lifespan, and Cancer Prevention.
Studies with model organisms suggest that aging and age-related conditions are manipulable processes that can be modified by both genetic and environmental factors, including dietary habits. Variations in genetic backgrounds likely lead to differential responses to dietary changes and account for some of the inconsistencies found in the literature. The intricacies of the aging process, coupled with the interrelational role of bioactive food components on gene expression, make this review a complex undertaking. Nevertheless, intriguing evidence suggests that dietary habits can manipulate the aging process and/or its consequences and potentially may have unprecedented health benefits. The present review focuses on 4 cellular events: telomerase activity, bioenergetics, DNA repair, and oxidative stress. 

Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG) and their associated proteins at the end of eukaryote chromosomes. Telomere length shortens throughout the lifespan with each cell division, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is often used as a biomarker of cellular aging. LTL is related to many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We examined the associations of processed meat intake and unprocessed red meat intake with LTL. Consumption of processed meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length, a potential mediator for several age-related diseases.

Inflammaging and Skeletal Muscle: Can Protein Intake Make a Difference? Inflammaging is the chronic low-grade inflammatory state present in the elderly, characterized by increased systemic concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines. It has been shown that inflammaging increases the risk of pathologic conditions and age-related diseases, and that it also has been associated with increased skeletal muscle wasting, strength loss, and functional impairments. Although evidence suggests that whey protein, soy protein, and isoflavone-enriched soy proteins may be promising nutritional interventions against the oxidative stress and chronic inflammation present in pathologic conditions and aging (inflammaging), there is a lack of information about the anabolic potential of dietary protein intake and protein supplementation in elderly people with increased systemic inflammation.

Dietary fiber and its fermentation metabolites play an important role in establishing and maintaining intestinal health. These findings suggest that microbial metabolites of guar gum  (GG), and partially hydrolyzed GG, and possibly Short chain fatty acids, reduce intestinal barrier defects and inflammation in colitic mice.

Dietary energy density (ED) is a measure of diet quality that estimates the amount of energy per unit of food (kilocalories per gram) consumed. Low-ED diets are generally high in fiber and fruits and vegetables and low in fat. Dietary ED has been positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and other risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer.

Larger portions not only promote the consumption of larger meals, but they encourage the adoption of food choice strategies motivated solely by palatability rather than satiety.

Food contamination levels are tolerable in the US.  Based on a broad range of nutrients and contaminants, this first assessment of compatibility between nutritional adequacy and toxicological exposure showed that reaching nutritional adequacy might increase exposure to food contaminants, but within tolerable levels.

Breastfeeding and plant protein reduce BMI through age 11, animal protein makes it larger. Protein intake (PI) may alter adiposity but few studies have explored the age-specific associations of PI with body mass index (BMI). Those with longer breastfeeding history (19 mo) were significantly smaller in BMI at age 11 y.  Complementary animal PI was positively associated with predicted BMI. Plant PI was inversely associated with predicted BMI of nonbreastfed infants.

LINK to Table of Contents for Jrnl of Nutrition where you can read all abstracts

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