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AJCN Oct, 2016 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Higher calcium intake is likely to increase the risk for diabetes.  Obesity is a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and has been the main focus for preventive efforts. However, obesity continues to be a serious health issue in the United States, and preventive efforts have not been fruitful.  Further research and understanding of the mechanisms underlying the association between serum calcium and diabetes risk may provide a new opportunity to combat the diabetes epidemic. The finding that higher serum calcium is associated with increased diabetes risk is important and needs to be investigated further.  Participants in the highest quintile of calcium intake had a higher risk of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a worldwide epidemic that disparately affects certain populations. Obesity is a leading risk factor for type 2 diabetes and has been the main focus for preventive efforts. However, obesity continues to be a serious health issue in the United States, and preventive efforts have not been fruitful.  In this study, the investigators evaluated serum calcium as a potential risk factor for incident diabetes in a large biracial prospective cohort. The investigators addressed one such common exogenous influence, which is diuretic use. When dietary calcium intakes are low, endogenous hormonal factors, especially parathyroid hormone and vitamin D metabolites, act quickly to maintain physiologically viable concentrations of serum calcium (13).  In the United States, African Americans have a 75% higher prevalence of diabetes compared with whites (18). 

Doubt remains whether fish oil reduces heart disease mortality, which fish diet clearly does. Beginning in the late 1960s, landmark epidemiologic observations made in fish-eating populations from Greenland, Canada, Alaska, China, and Japan suggested an inverse association between the consumption of long-chain marine n–3 PUFAs (e.g., EPA and DHA) and cardiovascular event rates (1). Over the years, many hypotheses have been put forth to explain this association, including the potential for beneficial effects on platelet activity, blood pressure, arrhythmia thresholds, endothelial function, lipid concentrations, and immune modulation.  Whether EPA fundamentally differs from DHA for these surrogate endpoints is uncertain and was nicely addressed in the August issue of the Journal. For the primary endpoint of CRP, reductions were seen as expected for both EPA and DHA when compared with the corn-oil control, but no significant differences between EPA and DHA were observed. Current meta-analyses have found no association between supplementation with n–3 fatty acids and risks of any major vascular events (10).  For skeptics, this rash of null-trial data has suggested that it may be a secondary factor associated with fish consumption, not the consumption of any fish oils in particular, that is important for risk reduction. Multiple high-quality, hard-outcome fish-oil supplementation trials are ongoing.  With >60,000 individuals currently enrolled in n–3 fatty acid trials worldwide, the clinical community is still waiting for definitive evidence with regard to fish consumption, fish oils, and cardiovascular event rates.

High fat cheese does not harm you. A high daily intake of regular-fat cheese for 12 wk did not alter LDL cholesterol or MetS risk factors differently than an equal intake of reduced-fat cheese or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods. The findings were suggested to support the contention that SFAs in the context of cheese as a food source do not adversely affect CVD risk profiles. It is well established that SFAs increase LDL cholesterol when they replace all other macronutrients except for trans fatty acids, and there are now emerging data that suggest differential effects of SFAs from various food sources, such as dairy foods and red meat, on lipid profiles and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Small metabolic studies, including some with biomarkers of dairy intake, have shown neutral or beneficial effects of dairy consumption, particularly fermented foods such as cheese and yogurt, on lipid profiles. The present study pushes glycemic index (GI) off the main table in our management of diabetes. The broad recommendation of the American Diabetes Association is that the quantity of carbohydrates consumed should be the most important element to be first considered by a patient presented with a meal. The total carbohydrate content is a strong predictor of the blood glucose response and a better predictor than the GI.

It reduces weight better to eat a bigger lunch and smaller dinner. The consumption of higher energy intake at lunch compared with at dinner may result in favorable changes in weight loss in overweight and obese women after a weight-loss program of 12 wk.

Prenatal exposure to DHA may contribute to improved sustained attention in preschool children

Early rapid weight gain is associated with later overweight, which implies that weight centile crossing tracks over time, with the correlations between successive periods that change with age suggesting a complex feedback mechanism underlying infant growth.

Too much protein during pregnancy may reduce child’s height.  Results suggest that higher protein intake during pregnancy does not increase fetal and child growth and may even reduce early length growth.  Mean (range) second-trimester protein intake was 1.4 g · kg−1 · d−1(0.3–3.1 g · kg−1 · d−1).

High intakes of red meat were associated with a 21% higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality, even when eating plenty of fruits and vegetables.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for AJCN where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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