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AJCN Aug, 2016 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Hold the fries please! French fries may be associated with increased risks of obesity.
But the identified studies do not provide convincing evidence to suggest an association between intake of potatoes and risks of obesity, T2D, or CVD.

Probable insomnia is associated with higher intakes of total energy,trans fat, and sodium and lower intake of vegetables.  We examined whether individuals with probable insomnia and individual insomnia symptoms had greater energy intake and a lower diet quality
 In a cohort study of 15,273 US men aged 58–93 y.

Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated disorder that is characterized by systemic inflammation and cytokine dysregulation. Similarly, obesity has been characterized as a proinflammatory state, with visceral adiposity generating adipocytokines.  To my knowledge, this is the first long-term cohort on the effect of weight loss on psoriasis severity and it suggests that benefits can endure over 1 y. This study showed reduced psoriasis severity and, perhaps more importantly, improved quality of life. It adds to a recent randomized trial which showed improvements in Psoriasis with weight loss and exercise counseling over 20 wk.

DHA is more effective than EPA in modulating specific markers of inflammation as well as blood lipids. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of a long-term DHA supplementation per se on cardiovascular disease risk. 

Our findings suggest that caffeine intake is not associated with PMS.

Background: The carbohydrate–insulin model of obesity posits that habitual consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet sequesters fat within adipose tissue because of hyperinsulinemia and results in adaptive suppression of energy expenditure (EE). Therefore, isocaloric exchange of dietary carbohydrate for fat is predicted to result in increased EE, increased fat oxidation, and loss of body fat. This is the basis of the Atkin’s diet.  Atkin’s diet failed to work in this clinical trial.  In contrast, a more conventional view that “a calorie is a calorie” predicts that isocaloric variations in dietary carbohydrate and fat will have no physiologically important effects on EE or body fat. 

Is obesity heritable? Like father, like son; like mother, like daughter—scientists have no doubt about it. Many twin studies were conducted over the past decade to estimate the “heritability” of BMI, a primary measure of adiposity. The results varied from 31% to 90%, reflecting a high genetic contribution

Obesity abolishes sensitivity to fish oils to control inflammation.  Plasma lysophospholipids have emerged as signaling molecules with important effects on inflammation, insulin resistance, and fatty liver disease, each of which is linked closely to obesity. Obesity has a substantial impact on lysophospholipid metabolism, altering the plasma lysophospholipid profile and abolishing its sensitivity to dietary n–3 PUFAs.

Counseling (like Weight Watchers) improves diet, lifestyle, and weight loss. Higher MedDiet scores at baseline were associated with healthier lifestyles and lower adiposity. After the intervention, MedDiet scores were greater in individuals randomly assigned to receive PN than in controls.

Pregnant women need vitamin D concentration >75 nmol/L.  In the first report to our knowledge of CDC-accredited 25(OH)D data and pregnancy outcomes from a large, clinically validated, prospective cohort study, we observed a protective association of a 25(OH)D concentration >75 nmol/L and a reduced risk of uteroplacental dysfunction as indicated by a composite outcome of small-for-gestational-age birth and pre-eclampsia.

A low-intensity diet treatment delivered by a dietitian within the primary health care setting can produce clinically relevant and sustainable weight loss in postpartum women with overweight and obesity.

Feed your infant during the day time. The feeding of infants predominantly during nighttime hours was associated with adiposity gain and risk of overweight in early childhood.

Exclusive breastfeeding for at least 6 weeks and lower soda consumption at 3 yrs old increase telomere length at age 5.  Early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with longer telomeres in Latino preschool children. High soda consumption at 3 y of age was associated with an accelerated attrition from 4 to 5 y of age.

Food preferences had a moderate genetic basis in late adolescence, in keeping with findings in children. However, by this older age, the influence of the shared family environment had disappeared, and only aspects of the environment unique to each individual twin influenced food preferences. This finding suggests that shared environmental experiences that influence food preferences in childhood may not have effects that persist into adulthood.
and T2D although confounding may be present.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for AJCN where you can read all abstracts

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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