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SUBJECT: AJCN June, 2016 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

1. Diet (esp. more vitamin C and less processed food) and exercise reduce inflammation, diabetes, stroke, and heart disease.  Long-term dietary advanced glycation end products (AGEs) restriction may be an effective strategy to obviate the risk of diabetes and its cardiovascular and stroke complication risks. [Vitamin C reduces AGEs.] The effect of isocaloric diets low and high in advanced glycation end products (AGEs)2 on insulin sensitivity in healthy overweight subjects was tested in a double-blind randomized crossover study. AGEs are particularly enriched in processed foods, and the receptor for AGE (RAGE) interacts with many ligands linked to chronic inflammation and disease.   Insulin sensitivity correlates negatively with age and self-reported physical activity as well as with diet. Insulin sensitivity is determined by complex metabolic interactions dictated by a multitude of inputs that include inherited genetic and epigenetic determinants as well as many varying modifiers such as diet, exercise, illness, age, socioeconomic status, and lifestyle. Imbalances in these modifiers may lead to insulin resistance, which, if it persists, can ultimately progress to type 2 diabetes with consequences that include hyperglycemia, obesity, hyperlipidemias, hypertension, myriad diabetic complications, and cardiovascular disease including strokes and heart attacks. This “metabolic syndrome” affects a substantial number of adults in this country, with insulin resistance present in a majority of overweight American adults and teenagers.

2. There is an evolving understanding with regard to the importance of breakfast, with both epidemiologic and experimental data suggesting that breakfast consumption may be beneficial. Nearly one-quarter of individuals in the United States skip breakfast daily, with an average energy contribution of ∼16% of total caloric intake. This is quite small in comparison to other meal times, such as evening (dinner) food consumption, during which ∼44% of daily calories are consumed (1). Prompted by such findings, a variety of studies have investigated the potential health benefits associated with breakfast consumption.

3. Counter to the energy surfeit model of obesity, results suggest that increasing energy expenditure may be more effective for reducing body fat than caloric restriction, which is currently the treatment of choice for obesity. 

4. Lipids were associated with total, lung, and colorectal cancer risks in women. Lifestyle interventions for heart-disease prevention, which reduce apo B-100 or raise HDL cholesterol, may be associated with reduced cancer risk.

5. Low vitamin B-6 status has been related to increased risk of coronary artery disease.  The richest sources of vitamin B6 include fish, beef liver and other organ meats, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, and fruit (other than citrus). In the United States, adults obtain most of their dietary vitamin B6 from fortified cereals, beef, poultry, starchy vegetables, and some non-citrus fruits.

6. Vitamin D is low in obese people.   Also, low maternal vitamin D concentrations are associated with proportional fetal growth restriction and with an increased risk of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth.

7. Consumption of a cranberry juice beverage lowered the number of clinical urinary tract infection episodes.

8. Tart cherries contain numerous polyphenolic compounds that improve endothelial function and reduce blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.

9. Dietary diversity during pregnancy is associated with reduced risk of maternal anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight.

10. Prediagnostic alcohol abstaining and heavy drinking were associated with poorer survival after a colorectal cancer diagnosis than light drinking.

11. Greater exposures to fast-food outlets and lower levels of education are independently associated with less healthy diets and obesity. These findings suggest that efforts to improve diets and health through neighborhood-level fast-food outlet regulation might be effective across socioeconomic groups and may serve to reduce observed socioeconomic inequalities in diet and obesity.

LINK to this month’s Table of Contents for AJCN where you can read all abstracts

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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