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SUBJECT: Valentine’s Day love from JNutr via Roc Nutrition Newsletter Feb, 2016
"If someone thinks that 'love and peace' is a cliche that must have been left behind in the Sixties, that's his problem. Love and peace are eternal." John Lennon
HIGHLIGHTS: For everyone:
Fruit and veggie fiber is good, cereal fiber is not so good. Lower adiponectin and higher C-reactive protein (CRP) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), have been identified as predictors of T2D risk. A greater fiber intake and a lower starch-to-fiber intake ratio are favorably associated with adiponectin and HbA1c, but only cereal fiber intake was associated with CRP in women.
Artificially sweetened beverages increase diabetes risk in non-obese people. Normal-weight, but not excess-weight, individuals with greater ASB consumption presented diabetes more frequently (15%) and had higher fasting glucose and poorer β-cell function.
Two grams leucine per day is all young muscles need - The goal of this critical review is to comprehensively assess the evidence for the molecular, physiologic, and phenotypic skeletal muscle responses to resistance exercise (RE) combined with the nutritional intervention of protein and/or amino acid (AA) ingestion in young adults. Supplementation of protein/AAs with RE exhibited clear protein dose–dependent effects on translational regulation (protein synthesis) through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling.
 Total protein intake per day, rather than protein timing or quality, appears to be more of a factor on this effect during long-term exercise interventions. There were no differences in strength or mass/muscle mass on RET outcomes between protein types when a leucine threshold (>2 g/dose) was reached. 
Flaxseed oil aids fish oil 27% in protecting your heart. Long-chain marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n–3 PUFAs) are associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), but results for plant-derived α-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n–3) are inconsistent. We found that plasma ALA may be marginally associated with reduced AMI risk, even in persons with high concentrations of long-chain n–3 PUFAs, and this association may be partially mediated by lower blood pressure and LDL cholesterol.
Avoid too much dairy, carnitine, and choline to protect your heart. High red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence and mortality, as well as some types of cancer and overall mortality.  Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is a metabolite of carnitine, choline, and phosphatidylcholine, which is inversely associated with survival of cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients. Meat, egg, or fish consumption was not associated with TMAO, choline, or betaine concentrations. With increases in milk and other dairy food consumption, the plasma TMAO concentration increased. Also, plasma TMAO concentrations were positively associated with inflammation. Whether habitual diet is strongly linked to the plasma TMAO concentration, a potential marker of CVD risk, needs to be determined in further studies.
50,000IU vitamin D per week relieves severe depression in 8 wks. Overall, vitamin D supplementation of patients with major depressive disorder for 8 wk had beneficial effects on the BDI [Beck Depression Inventory, which examines depressive symptoms] , indicators of glucose homeostasis, and oxidative stress.
Dietary Patterns High in Red Meat, Potato, Gravy, and Butter Are Associated with Poor Cognitive Functioning but Not with Rate of Cognitive Decline in very old (aged ≥85 y) adults. Overall worse concentration and focused attention were demonstrated.

For those concerned about obesity:
Healthy liver gene, a metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis, is not expressed if you eat a high fat diet. Fgf21 mRNA in liver and FGF21 protein in plasma were increased by 3.5- to 7-fold in high-carbohydrate  mice compared with standard feed pellets mice. Hepatic Fgf21 expression was upregulated by 1 and 5 wk of feeding a lipogenic HC diet but not by 16 wk of feeding an obesogenic HFD.

Dieting upregulates appetite hormones so you overeat when dieting ends - Short-term, severe energy deprivation suppressed acyl ghrelin concentrations and increased postprandial anorexigenic hormone concentrations. These effects preceeded compensatory overeating, suggesting that in adults without obesity, altered sensitivity to appetite-mediating hormones may contribute to an adaptive counterregulatory response during the initial stages of negative energy balance.

For possible mothers:
Breast milk is superior to formula for neonate brain development. Sialyllactose is a key human milk oligosaccharide and consists of sialic acid (SA) bound to a lactose molecule. Breastfed infants have increased accumulation of ganglioside-bound SA compared with formula-fed infants. We propose 2 potential routes by which sialyllactose may positively affect the neonate: serving as a source of SA for neurologic development and promoting beneficial microbiota. (Study done in pigs)

Another benefit of breastfeeding is discovered. The immature intestinal mucosa responds excessively to inflammatory insult, but human milk galactosyloligosaccharides containing 3′, 4-, and 6′-galactosyllactose protects infants from intestinal inflammation. 

Symposium: Role of Garlic in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention, Metabolic Syndrome, and Immunology (see Table of Contents at bottom
Roc’s Summary - Garlic lowers blood pressure, regulates cholesterol, stimulates immune system, protects the heart, reduces blood clotting, reduces fat accumulation, clears the arteries. If only everyone ate it, we could adjust to garlic breath.
LINK to Table of Contents for Jrnl of Nutrition where you can read all abstracts
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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