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SUBJECT: AJCN Feb, 2016

HIGHLIGHTS: FOR ADULTS: Hot peppers induce satiety - Capsaicin, which is the major pungent principle in chili peppers, is able to induce satiety and reduce caloric intake. 

Exercise does not reduce the damage from consuming high fructose beverages - Fructose oxidation rate was highest and fructose storage was lowest when consumed before cycling exercise. However, fructose conversion to glucose, lactate, and VLDL triglycerides was not different between the 3 conditions.This unexpected finding suggests that an acute bout of exercise does not divert fructose carbon away from its undesirable fates: hypertriglyceridemia, gluconeogenesis, hepatic lipid synthesis, and (potentially) storage.

Fish and fish oil lower risk of dementia - Fishery products are recommended as dietary sources and are associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. Marine-derived DHA was associated with lower risk of dementia and AD but without a linear dose-response relation.

An attenuation of age-related lung function decline was associated with higher dietary anthocyanin intake in this longitudinal sample of predominantly elderly men.

A DASH diet with more fat and fewer carbs lowered blood pressure to the same extent as the DASH diet but also reduced plasma triglyceride and VLDL concentrations without significantly increasing LDL cholesterol.

Higher concentrations of plasma β-carotene and α-carotene are associated with lower breast cancer risk of estrogen receptor–negative− tumors.

Supplement with 0.06 g leucine per kg body weight per meal to preserve muscles during bed rest - Bed rest has a profoundly negative effect on muscle metabolism, mass, and function in middle-aged adults. Leucine supplementation may partially protect muscle health during relatively brief periods of physical inactivity. 

 Higher dietary intake and higher blood concentrations of lutein are generally associated with better cardiometabolic health

Men's erectile function benefits from flavonoid-rich foods - A higher habitual intake of specific flavonoid-rich foods is associated with reduced Erectile dysfunction incidence.A higher intake of several flavonoids reduces diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk, also.

FOR OBESITY: You can inherit the desire to eat when you are not hungry - Numerous studies have found that obese compared with lean individuals show greater response of brain regions implicated in reward [e.g., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), striatum, amygdala] when viewing images of high-calorie foods, and more critically, individuals who show greater reward-region response to high-calorie food images exhibit elevated future weight gain. “inherited influences shape meal-induced suppression of motivation for highly energetic food as opposed to setting a basal level of responsiveness to environmental food cues.” Thus, results imply that heritability may primarily contribute to eating in the absence of hunger, and that this type of overeating may be prompted by exposure to high-calorie food cues when sated. There is emerging evidence that training participants to think of the long-term health consequences of eating high-calorie foods when viewing such foods, known as cognitive reappraisal training, reduces the responsivity of regions implicated in attention and expectation, increases the responsivity of inhibitory regions to high-calorie food images, and reduces body fat compared with control participants who watched an educational video on obesity.

FOR PREGNANCY: Too much protein is harmful for infants - The “Early Protein Hypothesis” proposes that high early protein intakes increase plasma concentrations of insulin-releasing amino acids, stimulate the secretion of insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and enhance weight gain and body fat deposition, as well as the later risk of obesity, adiposity, and associated diseases. The currently available data suggest that high dietary protein intakes not only in infancy but also after the first year of life can induce adverse effects on the risk of obesity and associated diseases.

Supplement with 2000 IU vitamin D during pregnancy - Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy of 2000 IU/d (compared with 1000 IU/d and with a placebo) results in a higher VDA of breast milk ≥2 mo postpartum.  Supplement—Evaluating the Evidence to Support Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants

Supplement—Evaluating the Evidence to Support Guidelines for the Nutritional Care of Preterm Infants: the Pre-B Project - Executive summary - Preterm birth (infants born at <37 wk of gestational age) is a significant clinical and public health challenge in the United States and globally.

LINK to Table of Contents for AJCNwhere you can read all abstracts

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
*To be added or removed from the nutrition research Email List . *To review the disclaimer*To ask Roc a question. http://chemistry.beloit.edu/Ordman/
“Yoga is absolutely essential to my aging with grace-physically, emotionally, and socially” 68-yr old Playboy Playmate Jaki Nett

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