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SUBJECT: AJCN Dec 2015

Dairy products with natural transfatty acids are not hazardous like industrial trans fats - Ruminant fat has 2-3% trans fats (rTFAs), which are different than industrial TFAs (iTFAs) produced by hydrogenation of plant oils.  In 1990, iTFAs were shown to increase LDL cholesterol and to decrease HDL cholesterol.  This study shows rTFAs are also harmful when isolated.  But the lack of a harmful effect of dairy fat is most likely due to a low intake of rTFAs, a beneficial effect of other components of dairy products, or residual confounding. 

Exercise and energy balance: going to extremes to show that body weight is not the best outcome. Although we all agree that obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide, there is still a heated debate in the literature as to whether we should focus on diet or on physical activity/exercise to deal with the problem. It is documented that previously obese individuals who have been successful in maintaining a reduced body weight have a lifestyle that includes high levels of physical activity (4).  I have tried to make sure that there are 1–2 h/d devoted to endurance exercise despite my busy agenda. The objective of putting these daily periods of vigorous and prolonged physical activity in my schedule has been 2-fold: 1) to induce the expression of numerous genes that confer protection against the development of metabolic diseases and 2) to significantly increase my total daily energy expenditure, providing a buffer against occasional exposure to our ubiquitous obesogenic diet.  We have previously shown that such a strategy contributes to mobilizing dangerous visceral adipose tissue/ectopic fat depots and improves numerous cardiometabolic risk markers (6).  This notion is compatible with the concept put forward by Hill et al. (9) that the body better regulates its energy balance at a high level of energy turnover compared with very sedentary individuals who, as mentioned before, are very prone to being in positive energy balance.  With exercise, weight may not be lost, but body fat is converted to muscle.  Women tend to protect their healthy body fat stores to a greater extent than men when involved in an exercise training program.  Finally, replacing the beam scale by a simple and cheap tape measure to assess waist circumference rather than body weight may also be a smart idea.

Replacement of diet beverages (DB) with water after the main meal may lead to greater weight reduction during a weight-loss program.  Compared with the DB group, the water group had a greater decrease in weight (−8.8 ± 1.9 kg in 24 weeks).

Low levels of physical activity are associated with dysregulation of energy intake and fat mass gain over 1 year.  A threshold for achieving energy balance occurred at an activity level corresponding to 7116 steps/d.

Tree nut intake lowers total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, ApoB, and triglycerides. The major determinant of cholesterol lowering appears to be nut dose rather than nut type. Stronger effects were observed for ≥60 g nuts/d.

Higher serum vitamin C builds stronger bones and reduces fracture risk. Higher vitamin C intake was significantly associated with higher heel ultrasound measures in men and women, and higher plasma vitamin C concentrations were significantly associated with reduced fracture risk in men only. 

50g (1.5 oz) of dark chocolate each day is good for your heart. Evidence from dietary intervention studies shows that the intake of flavanols and procyanidins can be beneficial for cardiovascular health. The consumption of cocoa flavanols in amounts up to 2000 mg/d for 12 wk was well tolerated in healthy men and women. 5-26g of dark chocolate contains 65-1,095mg of flavanols. 

Intake of carbohydrates during pregnancy in obese women is associated with fat mass in the newborn offspring; Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with long-term body fat and weight retention at 7 y postpartum in African American and Dominican mothers with underweight, normal, and overweight prepregnancy BMI.

High n–3 PUFA, especially marine n–3 PUFAs, and DHA consumption was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer

These data suggest that the inverse association of coffee intake with liver cancer—hepatocellular carcinoma  risk was partly accounted for by biomarkers of inflammation and hepatocellular injury.

Higher habitual dietary resveratrol exposure was associated with lower risk of older community dwellers developing frailty syndrome.  

Diets with high starch, low fiber, and a high starch-to–cereal fiber ratio were associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes

The consumption of prebiotics (fermentable and nondigestible carbohydrates) has been proposed as a potentially protective factor against overweight and obesity. Higher prebiotic consumption was associated with lower risk of overweight in a cohort of initially normal-weight, middle-aged adults.

 Intakes of MUFAs and PUFAs were associated with a lower risk of CVD and death, whereas SFA and trans-fat intakes were associated with a higher risk of CVD.

 In healthy individuals, intraduodenal whey protein load-dependently modulates gastrointestinal motor and hormonal functions and suppresses energy intake.

LINK TO TABLE OF CONTENTS for Dec AJCN

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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“How can I take care of this body and mind to keep them healthy so I can help others?” This is what the Buddha taught. –Living by vow, Okumura

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