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Both the Institute of Medicine (9) and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (10) define 25(OH)D sufficiency as a concentration of 0.50 nmol/L for bone health (RDA is 600 IU/d). These definitions are the same across all age groups, including adolescence. In the United States, 14% of adolescents (12–19 y old) have low concentrations of 25(OH)D (,50 nmol/L), and 50% of black adolescents have low concentrations; these percentages are higher in overweight and obese adolescents (11).  Pregnant women taking vitamin D supplements are more likely to have enough.  There is a moderate tracking of 25(OH)D status through pregnancy; factors such as vitamin D supplementation, weight gain, and physical activity are associated with changes in season-corrected 25(OH)D from early to late gestation. Vitamin D deficiency may lead to fetal iron deficiency. In this group of pregnant adolescents, suboptimal vitamin D status was associated with increased risk of iron insufficiency and vice versa. 

Large-population studies in adults have reported protective risk ratios against hearing loss with higher dietary intakes of fish, long-chain PUFAs, folate, β-carotene, and vitamins A, E, and C. Hearing loss is a neglected public health problem that affects an estimated 360 (1) to 554 (2) million adults and children in the world. Animal evidence exists to support roles for each of these studied nutrients in regulating redox stress, protecting cochlear function, and enabling hearing. Interestingly, dietary exposure to potentially ototoxic heavy metals (e.g., cadmium, lead), a high BMI and waist circumference (i.e., obesity), and reduced physical activity have also been linked to hearing loss (8), which implies that systemic stress from a chronically unhealthy diet, lifestyle, and environment may carry consequences for ear health and hearing. 

Daily egg consumption was not associated with risk of myocardial infarction 
 or any stroke type in either men or women or with risk of heart failure
 in women.

A dietary pattern characterized by high intakes of protein, calcium, and potassium in midadolescence was associated with higher bone mineral density, and bone mineral content
at 20 y of age. Our results indicate that high consumption of low-fat dairy products, whole grains, and vegetables in adolescence are associated with beneficial effects on bone development.

Overall prostate cancer risk was positively associated with retinol and inversely associated with α-tocopherol, and risk of aggressive prostate cancer was inversely associated with lycopene and α-tocopherol.

Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (13-27%) in both women and men.

Adherence to a Mediterranean-type diet is linked to a lower risk of mortality and chronic disease. Higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced risk of progression to advanced AMD.

Elevated weight variability in young women may signal the degradation of body weight regulatory systems. In an obesogenic environment this may eventuate in accelerated weight gain, particularly in those with a genetic susceptibility toward overweight. 

At intakes of the RDA, α-tocopherol bioavailability is unaffected by dairy fat quantity but is lower in metabolic syndrome adults, potentially because of greater inflammation and oxidative stress that limits small intestinal α-tocopherol absorption and/or impairs hepatic α-tocopherol trafficking. 

The feeding of high volumes of cow milk in late infancy is associated with faster weight and height gain than is breast milk feeding.

The frequency of gluten-containing food consumption during late pregnancy is not associated with risk of celiac disease in the offspring.

Fracture risk in adolescents seemed to be associated with milk avoidance, high energy intake, high cheese intake, high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, and no breastfeeding.

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