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SUBJECT: AJCN Oct 2015
FOR STAYING HEALTHY
Keeping hydrated reduces oxidative stress. A relatively superior hydration status is associated with a quantitative reduction in urinary excretion of systemic oxidation products. We collected seventy-eight samples of 24-h urine in preschoolers who were attending daycare centers in the Western Highlands province of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala.
Fiber intake reduced risks of incident colorectal adenoma and distal colon cancer 24% in the highest tertile.
Dietary factors can affect telomere length (TL), a biomarker of aging, through oxidation and inflammation-related mechanisms. Our findings are consistent with, but do not show, a beneficial effect of adherence to an anti-inflammatory diet on aging and health by slowing down telomere shortening.
Binge compared with nonbinge drinking (defined as reporting ≥4 compared with <4 drinks/d, respectively) was associated with 64.35% higher total and free estradiol. Although recent moderate alcohol intake does not appear to have adverse short-term effects on menstrual cycle function, potential protective and deleterious long-term effects of alterations in reproductive hormones on other chronic diseases warrant additional investigation.
Higher intake of black tea and particular classes of flavonoids were associated with lower risk of fracture-related hospitalizations in elderly women at high risk of fracture.
Experimental studies suggest protective effects of vitamin D on breast carcinogenesis, particularly on estrogen receptor–positive tumors. Current vitamin D supplementation, mostly taken daily and combined with calcium, was associated with a decreased postmenopausal breast cancer risk in menopausal hormone therapy users.
CONCERNED ABOUT YOUR WEIGHT
Subjects tasting the combination of bitter, sweet, and umami decreased ad libitum food intake by 13%, whereas no single tastant affected intake. Body weight is physiologically regulated by a homeostatic system that tends to maintain remarkably stable levels of adiposity over long time periods, especially resisting volitional weight loss. The main biological determinant of food intake in most higher-order animals is meal size, which is controlled by satiation: the feeling of fullness that influences when we decide to stop eating a meal. A simplified model of satiation is that it results from the sum of gastric mechanoreception and intestinal chemoreception, both activated by ingested food. New research indicates it is also from noncaloric properties of tastant molecules in food.
A calorie’s worth is relative to the physiologic status of the person ingesting that calorie. The Obesity Society (1) reviewed the available evidence-based literature with regard to the macronutrient content of diets and their health benefits and concluded that weight loss was similar with all types of diets as long as the diets achieved similar calorie restriction. The low-carbohydrate-diet group showed greater reductions in diabetes medications and glycemic variability, as well as triglycerides, and greater increases in HDL cholesterol.
Increased central body fat deposition may represent a risk and maintenance factor for loss-of-control eating and is associated with body image dissatisfaction.
Dieting attenuates weight loss and favors weight regain. Adaptive thermogenesis (AT) is the fat-free mass (FFM)–independent reduction of resting energy expenditure (REE) to caloric restriction (CR).
Paleolithic nutrition, which has attracted substantial public attention lately because of its putative health benefits, differs radically from dietary patterns currently recommended in guidelines, particularly in terms of its recommendation to exclude grains, dairy, and nutritional products of industry. The Paleolithic diet resulted in greater short-term improvements in metabolic syndrome components than did guideline-based control diets. The available data warrant additional evaluations of the health benefits of Paleolithic nutrition.