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SUBJECT: AJCN Sept 2015

EVERYONE
A small study found that skipping breakfast should be enough to reduce the rate of gain in weight for people who regularly consume breakfast. [Though last month an article reported students brains are 50% more effective if they have eaten breakfast.]

Consumption of whole-grain diets lowers LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol, but not HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, compared with consumption of non–whole-grain control diets. Whole-grain oat appears to be the most effective whole grain for lowering cholesterol.

Diets with cheese and meat as primary sources of SFAs cause higher HDL cholesterol and apo A-I and, therefore, appear to be less atherogenic than is a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet. The study was a randomized, crossover, open-label intervention in 14 overweight postmenopausal women.

Lean-seafood intake (vs. non-seafood protein intake) reduces cardiovascular lipid risk factors in healthy subjects.

WOMEN
Consumption of caffeinated and artificially sweetened soft drinks is associated with risk of early menarche in a US cohort of African American and Caucasian girls.

A habitually high intake of soy isoflavones may be associated with a modest (24% in highest quintile) but significant increase in risk of ischemic stroke in women. However, no association was shown for the urinary excretion of isoflavonoids.

B vitamins improve bone strength.  In women aged ≥50 y, elevated serum total homocysteine  was negatively associated, serum folates were positively associated, and vitamin B-12 were not significantly associated with lumbar and total-body BMD. In this nationally representative population of older US women with high exposure to B vitamins through food fortification and dietary supplements, only elevated tHcy and MMA were independently associated with risk of lumbar spine osteoporosis.

MATURE
 In the elderly, the absorption of Vitamin B-12 is reduced; hence, the daily requirement is higher than in younger individuals. Vitamin B-12 deficiency can result from vegetarianism.

PREGNANT
Lower carb intake during pregnancy improves micronutrient levels. Normal pregnancy can be associated with a decline in energy and micronutrient intake from diet. Low dietary GI and GL were the best predictors of a favorable micronutrient profile.

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The message of Voltaire and Pangloss is, “in the face of a Heaven known to be decidedly unbenevolent, it takes unrelenting, thankless, and almost ill-rewarded work to cultivate happiness here on earth”…-New Yorker 9/21/15 pg 104

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