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SUBJECT: Notes from the Linus Pauling Institute meeting, Sept 9-12, 2015 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Note these notes are not the responsibility of these experts.
From Maret Traber, Vitamin E [VE] and the Brain
VE is essential during the first 20 days of pregnancy! VE level is proportional to infant brain size.  VE deficiency may cause autism. For brain health, B vitamins, C, D, E, and fish oil are esp. important, while trans fats are harmful. There is 30% less essential DHA in VE deficient brains. (DHA is fish oil that comprises 70% of nerve membranes making the neurons flexible for making new connections.) “It is nonsense that VE supplements are hazardous.”

From experts at Tufts Univ, I learned that 200 IU daily supplement is optimum.  “Simin Meydani’s result from Nursing home study (n=800) showed that optimal level for vitamin E in Elderly is 200 which provides protection against common cold (JAMA paper) .  Since then nothing has changed. Dr. Mohsen Meydani’s animal study (Ldlr-/- mice) also showed VE (500 IU/kg diet) prevents mortality due to atherosclerosis, when VE supplemented from early age. “

Dr. Sen explained that alpha-tocotrienol [A3T], which is available as a supplement, provides neuroprotection. After a stroke, it provides 70-80% improvement.  First 24 hrs after a stroke is when most damage occurs from neuroinflammation, so one must deliver A3T ASAP!  Experts are taking 200 to 400 mg daily even when healthy.  It is made by HOVID.

Dr. Bruno - 50% of people over 60 have metabolic syndrome.  92% are deficient in VE. Inflammation enhances fat accumulation, but reduces absorption of VE.  Oxidative stress also reduces VE.  But a handful of nuts daily will provide the RDA, which is only 15 mg (though 200 is probably optimal).  But VE (alpha-tocopherol) decreases level of gamma-tocopherol, an isomer which is also vital. So with supplemental VE, one must be sure to get dietary VE which contains gamma.

Dr. Sierra - 6 factors in aging - cognitive, immune system, cell proliferation, cardiovascular health, insulin sensitivity, and musculoskeletal health. Bruce Ames commented “the low hanging fruit to prevent aging decline is nutrition.”

Dr. Forouzanfar presented the optimal diet for minimum health risk factors:
200-400 g fruit/day, 350-450 g veggies, 100-150 g grains, 12-20 g nuts and seeds (notice no 4-legged meat).

Dr. Austad - Lifespan - Maximum lifespan - clams live 507 yrs; whales-211 yrs; fish - 205 yrs; parrots-106 yrs; naked mole rat-30 yrs; The bat is mammalian champion-10xexpectation for their size; humans-5xexpectation for their size.  Protein stability is what keeps mole rats young.  My teaberry trial may help your protein stability increase along with your health span.

Dr. Capri - Butyrate is key to a healthy microbiome Foods high in butyrate; centenarians have more proteobacteria. To keep healthy colon, eat yogurt, fiber like whole grains, and probiotics.

Jan 2015 Nature - By splicing animals together, scientists have shown that young blood rejuvenates old tissues. Now, they are testing whether it works for humans. And last September, a clinical trial in California became the first to start testing the benefits of young blood in older people with Alzheimer's disease. 

Sulforophane from cruciferous vegetables and onions has anti-inflammatory, epigenetic, stem cell, cell cycle and signaling benefits to increase healthspan.

Dr. Benninghof - Western diet micronutrients doubles the risk of colon cancer and inflammation. 

Dr. Vissers - Higher grade tumors get less vitamin C. VC drives down tumor factors.

Dr. Carr - 50g IV VC twice a week provides a tremendous increase in health and well being during chemotherapy for cancer; eliminated fatigue, helps appetite and sleep.

Dr, Michaels - VC fails to help the immune system resist aging, but it is anti-inflammatory, aids WBCs, T-cells, and decreases level of B and T-cells

Dr. Magnuson states 120 is maximum lifespan, though oldest person has already lived past 122nd birthday.  With age, executive function and working memory and processing speed go down past 60,  perseveration increases; brain weight and size decrease, but only 10% of neurons are lost; synapses decrease 40% by age 80; Mediterranean diet is great.  N-acetyl carnitine, lipoic acid, (both in Juvenon supplements) and vitamin D enhance mental function.

Dr.Ingram - 10% caloric restriction [CR] + 15% exercise is as effective as 25% CR; CR 5 days, 20 days normal appears as good as continuous CR. CR attenuates brain plaque.  UW-Madison study says CR works on primates, NIA study showed the opposite, but it definitely helps healthspan.  NIA states “There are great health benefits no matter what age you start exercising.” And “There is great benefit to quitting smoking no matter what age.” These are almost the only things the Natl Institute of Aging is certain of officially.
            CR mimetics - Resveratrol(supplement), mannoheptulose (from unripe avocadoes) Metformin, 2-deoxyglucose, D-glucosamine, rapamycin; but none are proven. Genes that are important are esp. SIRT1, and SIRT3 for mitochondrial health.
            Resveratrol activates SIRT1, improves healthspan, has big benefits for health and memory

Dr. Scoley - nutraceutical interventions to maintain cognitive function - An average brain burns120g glucose /day. Breakfast is essential for kids for brain function, making them twice as fit to learn and pay attention.  Ages 20-40 are key for good diet to prevent Alzheimer’s (AD).  Age 50-74 taking a multivitamin (MV) improves brain function dramatically. This reduces age of brain decay by 6.5 yrs. MV improves sleep, mood, energy, and alertness. Esp. important are B6, B12, folate, and curcumin (turmeric).  Curcumin helps memory, decreases fatigue, LDL and total cholesterol and improves sex life.
             For brain health, eat flavonols, Quercetin, catechin, polyphenols, dark chocolate.
            Cocoa (dark chocolate) helps neurogenesis and angiogenesis (making blood vessels) in the brain, especially in the hippocampus (main seat of memory). 
            7 genes in the mTOR pathway assist in healthy aging, so it is good to turn on mTOR, which branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) do.

Dr. Odden - For CV risk in elderly, the main challenge is to get exercise to prevent frailty and sacropenia (muscle wasting). From 1930 to 2010, lifespan has increased 2.5 yr every 10 yrs = 25%.  At age 65, systolic blood pressure (BP) = 130 is ideal, and at age 86 systolic BP = 180 is good. From 65-74, healthy BP (not too high or low), low LDL, good insulin sensitivity are healthy. From 75-84, only BP is a risk factor.  Age 85+, none of these matter anymore to survival rate.  The new risk factors for healthy aging are inflammation (CRP level), kidney function, and cardiac stiffness (from too much calcium). These 3 represent lifetime risk accumulation. Note there is a harm of lowering BP beyond age 65.
            Frailty is loss of physical reserve and vulnerability to stress. KEY MEASURE IS GAIT SPEED - walking fast represents best promise of longevity and health. It is unclear whether slow walkers will benefit by walking faster, except that exercise is very beneficial to health.
Low diastolic BP is hazardous, as the heart is perfused then.

Dr. Marshall - People over 65 with back pain have a 50% greater risk of falling. Low vitamin D intake causes greater risk of fracture.  One needs at least 2,000 IU daily, though for many even this is too low. Ideal vitamin D level is over 32 ng/ml serum. Walking rapidly is great to reduce fall risk esp. because it increases balance. It also reduces risk for osteoporosis and osteopenia.  BMI of 25 to 30 is best.  Excess weight favors bone resorption causing osteoporosis.  Eating at least 3 servings of fruit and veggies daily decreases hip fracture risk. Antioxidants also decrease risk of hip fracture and increase bone strength.  Paying attention also reduces risk of falling [consider meditation and yoga]

Dr. Scalan - Indole-3-carbinol is a key molecule in cruciferous vegetables, which inactivates carcinogens.  But once cancer starts, it actually promotes (accelerates) cancer.  Chlorophyll is anti-carcinogenic, so when you eat vegetables, the chlorophyll binds carcinogens before they are absorbed from the intestines - some call this “green chemoprevention” via chlorophyll, glucoraphenin and sulfurophane, all anti-carcinogens in broccoli.

Dr. Balz Frei, Director of LPI - Micronutrient needs - We require 13 vitamins and 14 minerals, vs. macronutrients that provide calories, which is energy.  Major macronutrients are Ca, Mg, P, K, and Na. Other 9 are trace minerals.  Excess consumption in developed nations include calories 280% of requirement, refined grains 200%, sodium 150%, and saturated fats 110%. For a healthy goal, the average person in the US should consume more of whole grains (15%); veggies (59%), fruit (42%), and seafood (42%).  By a healthy diet, one can reduce disease risk of lung cancer 80%, Type 2 diabetes 90%, CVD 80%, stroke 75%, and colon cancer 45%. Waist circumference is replacing BMI for ideal body - no more than 36 inches for men, 40 inches for women.  Hazard to health is mainly belly fat.
            Five main characteristics for long healthspan:
1. ½ hr of brisk walking per day, 2. Waist below 36 in for men, 40 for women, 3. Non-smoker, 4. Moderate alcohol intake 1 drink for female, 2 for men, 5. Healthy diet-low trans fats, high poly/sat’d fat ratio, high fiber, fish, fruit and veggie intake. These reduce heart attack risk 82%.
            About 50% of US does not meet RDA of vitamins A and C; 70% deficient in Potassium, nearly 100% are deficient in vitamins E and D, and magnesium.  Ideal vitamin D level is 32 ng/ml serum.
            To reduce BP, control sodium (reduce BP 2-4mM), weight (5-10mM), diet (DASH 8-14mM), exercise (4-9mM), and excess alcohol (2-4mM). Ideal diet should be well above the RDA for micronutrients, esp vitamins D and E, choline and potassium.  In a survey of 20 people at LPI, they were deficient in 15 of 27 micronutrients. Even with a multivitamin, still need extra Mg, K, vitamin D and vitamin K.  If everyone is the US just took a multivitamin (MVM) daily, it would prevent 200,000 cases of cancer annually. Cataracts are main cost of medicare. But MVM does not affect cognition or heart disease.

Tory Hagen - Lifespan in 1790 was 33, in 1900 was 47, 1940 age 63, 2000 age 76, 2015 age 82. The differences came first from sanitation, then antibiotics, and then from more successful childbirth and first years of life.  Currently the price of longevity for those who do not properly prepare for aging is chronic disease, frailty from disuse, and cognitive decline.  50% of people over 65 have hypertension, 33% have CVD, 25% have cancer, and 43% have frailty.  Alzheimer’s disease (AD) increases from 1% of those age 50, to 32% from 80-89, to 58% from 90-95.  Healthspan has stagnated the past decade. At age 80, system decline is first in the eyes (10% of youthful functionality remains), then kidneys (30%), followed by lung capacity (60%), hearing (60%),  heart (80%),  and last is nerves (90%).
            Longevity assurance systems - Genetic inheritance only affects lifespan by 15-25%.  The rest is environment, and mostly diet. For environment, you need exercise, social interactions, and a positive outlook. In 2015, there are still 42 million smokers.
BAD STUFF: Five hazards to longevity are being sedentary, high BP, obesity, diabetes, and smoking.  Probability of survival to age 90 is 55% with none of those hazards, just 25% for smokers, 30% for obese, 40% with high BP, and 43% if lazy. With 2 of those 5 hazard factors, odds of surviving to age 90 drop to 20-35%, 3 factors to 10-20%, 4 factors 10%, if you have all 5 factors, just 5%.
GOOD STUFF: Marriage, social interactions, moderate physical activity (30 min brisk walking) started any time in life, moderate alcohol - for most people, that is up to 3 drinks until over 65, 1 drink when older, 15 oz per month over age 70 (but this is correlation, not causation).
Jogging and mortality - Light jogging is 1-2.4 hr/week, which is 2/3rds healthier than sedentary or strenuous exercise. Strenuous is more than 5 hrs/week. Moderate exercise is 3-5 hrs jogging / week, which is 1/3rd healthier.
            Having only low to moderate stress is beneficial, increasing life and healthspan 10 yrs.  Eating at caloric restriction levels (60% of normal calories with a multivitamin) 5 days per 25 days is as good as full time caloric restriction.  Vitamins C and E are good, but not coenzyme Q10 or glutathione supplements.  LPI recommends higher levels of 3 vitamins - B12 - twice the RDA; Vitamin C-400 mg/day; vitamin D - 2,000 IU daily or a blood level of more than 32 ng/ml.
            To determine whether your supplements are legitimate, check out the independent analysis at Wow, this is an awesome website for nutrition supplement evaluations.

Dinner Comments- Switching to organic foods may relieve thyroid problems, as Roundup destroys balance of phytoestrogens in vegetables and harms the thyroid;  Splenda may be hazardous for diabetics because it contains maltodextrin, a form of sugar.

Xanthohumol in hops decreases obesity at 8 or 24 mg per day, taken with cheese to promote absorption. Xanthohumol, found in hops in beer, has many health benefits.
Reservatrol, quercetin, and vitamin D act synergistically and promote anti-microbial peptides
Ulloa and Duckworth - Putting temptation out of sight makes dieting easier; most people live in an obesogenic environment.
Magnusson KR et al - Western diets high in fat and carbs decease cognitive function and microbiome balance.
Lowry, MB et al - Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased susceptibility to infections, decreasing anti-microbial peptide gene expression.
Wightman, E et al - Reservatrol aids cognitive function
Zhang WJ et al- Long term alpha-lipoic acid (600 mg/d) reduces body weight and fat mass, inflammation, and lipid peroxidation in obese women.
Li, C et al - Quercetin has anti-inflammatory benefits.
Firsick EJ et al - Cytotoxicity of vitamin C on cancer cells depends on culture media - Experimental design is critical to examine in determining whether specific cancer and normal cells are susceptible to vitamin C production of hydrogen peroxide.

Vitamin D level should be between 20 to 50 ng/mL, and at the LPI conference the higher level was recommended.  But uptake of vitamin D varies significantly in people.  A Vitamin D level home test kit costs $50.

If you  can afford about $400, Spectrecell labs in Houston, TX, will provide a personal vitamin/mineral/other stuff analysis.

That’s a lot of stuff to learn. But if you learn it, you can have a much longer healthspan to learn and enjoy even more.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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To have a good idea, you have to have a lot of ideas. Linus Pauling

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