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SUBJECT: J Nutrition Aug, 2015 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Consume more olive oil - Olive oil polyphenols have shown protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Their consumption decreased oxidative stress biomarkers and improved some features of the lipid profile. The consumption of olive oil polyphenols decreased plasma LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in healthy young men. 

Omega-3s not from fish increase colorectal cancer risk when not enough fiber is eaten - We analyzed whether intakes of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were associated with CRC risk and whether these associations were modified by dietary fiber (DF) intake. When data were analyzed by food sources, only n–3 PUFAs from nonmarine sources were associated with an increased risk of CRC.High n–3 PUFA with low dietary fiber intakes was when risk increased.

Fish oil may not be so good for older women - Associations of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus decosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and total omega-3 (n–3) fatty acid (FA) intakes with abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) are not well understood. A total of 312 participants aged 45–64 y old at baseline were followed for a duration of 18 ± 1 y. The results of our study suggest that dietary ALA and total ω-3 FA intakes are both important predictors of the development of AAC in older women, but not in older men.

Orange juice polyphenols help heavy adults -  Our results show that the consumption of orange juice containing either normal or high concentrations of polyphenols  protected against DNA damage and lipid peroxidation, modified several antioxidant enzymes, and reduced body weight in overweight or obese nonsmoking adults. 

There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7−10 y

Vitamin D helps mature people maintain healthy brains, but does not affect macular degeneration - The aims of this study were to cross-sectionally investigate the association between vitamin D status and brain tissue volumes in 217 Dutch community-dwelling older adults aged ≥65 y. Higher serum 25(OH)D and lower plasma glucose are associated with larger gray matter volume, but not white matter or total brain volume. We observed significantly less weight gain over 4-y periods with each SD increase of each diet quality score in both men and women. Results were significantly stronger in the younger cohort than in the older cohorts.

Diet quality during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth - the DASH diet is best. Preconceptional and early prenatal dietary counseling promoting healthy dietary intake could improve pregnancy outcomes. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity in the United States. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified from the factor analysis characterized by high intakes of the following: 1) fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, high-fiber and fortified cereals, nonfried chicken and fish, and wheat bread; 2) beans, corn, French fries, hamburgers or cheeseburgers, white potatoes, fried chicken, mixed dishes, and ice cream; 3) collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red and processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks; and 4) shellfish, pizza, salty snacks, and refined grains. Increased odds of preterm birth were found for a diet characterized by a high consumption of collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red meats, fried chicken and fish, processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, eggs or egg biscuits, gravy, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks such as Kool-Aid (Kraft Foods) and Hi-C. Greater adherence to the DASH diet was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth.

Long-term dietary change, but not dieting, reduces weight gain in young and old -  In this analysis we followed 50,603 women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), 22,973 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) between 1986 and 2006, and 72,495 younger women from the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II) between 1989 and 2007. Diet was measured every 4 y. We computed the Alternate Mediterranean Diet, the Alternate Health Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension adherence scores for each participant.

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