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SUBJECT: AJCNAug 2015

Vitamin C reduces the risk of head and neck cancer - Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most-common type of cancer worldwide. No statistically significant results were shown for vitamin E, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin. We show an inverse association between intake of vitamin C and the incidence of HNC and HNC-subtypes.

Olive oil lowers the risk of diabetes - Our results suggest that higher olive oil intake is associated with modestly lower risk of T2D in women and that hypothetically substituting other types of fats and salad dressings (stick margarine, butter, and mayonnaise) with olive oil is inversely associated with T2D.

Eating sweet and starchy food increases the risk of depression - We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression. The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. 

Phosphate intake (like soda pop) is killing you slowly - Numerous studies have consistently found significant, independent associations between increased serum phosphate concentrations and greater cardiovascular events and mortality. These relations have been shown in people with chronic kidney disease but also in the general population.

Dietary cholesterol is probably does not affect cholesterol levels - the evidence for dietary cholesterol restriction to lower total and LDL cholesterol is insufficient. In fact, the USDA guidelines state that “cholesterol is not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption.” These statements about dietary cholesterol have provoked considerable reaction. Updated data show no consistent relation between egg consumption and CVD.

Caloric restriction benefits health, but it is unclear whether intermittent fasting is beneficial - Intermittent fasting, alternate-day fasting, and other forms of periodic caloric desistance are gaining popularity in the lay press and among animal research scientists. Whether clinical evidence exists for or is strong enough to support the use of such dietary regimens as health interventions is unclear. Clinical research studies of fasting with robust designs and high levels of clinical evidence are sparse in the literature.

Too much folate increases risk of skin cancer.

Inflammation of adipose tissue promotes cancer - Metabolic and transcriptomic differences between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments, particularly in the context of obesity, may play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. We identified markers of inflammation in VAT (promoted by eating four legged meat), which supports prior evidence regarding the role of visceral adiposity and cancer.

Magnesium and potassium maintain bone density - A multitude of factors are known to influence bone health, including modifiable factors such as diet, physical activity, and smoking but also age, sex, and genetics. Osteoporosis, characterized by bone loss due to deterioration of bone microarchitecture and consequent increased risk of fracture, is particularly associated with age and thus represents a major public health concern for our aging population. Among modifiable lifestyle and dietary factors, dietary magnesium and potassium intakes are postulated to influence bone quality and osteoporosis, principally via calcium-dependent alteration of bone structure and turnover. These findings enhance the limited literature studying the association of magnesium and potassium with bone density.

DASH Diet is effective when lean pork is substituted for chicken and fish - Sponsored by the National Pork Board, this indicates, for blood pressure only, occasional 4-legged meat can be tolerated. Red meat consumption is limited to 0.5 servings/day.

Butter raises total and LDL cholesterol levels, esp in hypercholesterolemic people. They should keep their consumption of butter to a minimum.

Dietary nitrate in green leafy veggies decreases blood pressure - Dietary nitrate, which is in green leafy vegetables and beetroot, decreases blood pressure through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in healthy individuals. 

Those with low vitamin D may try 50,000 IU/week for 12 weeks - In the treated group, 25(OH)Dtotal rose from 18 ± 7 to 43 ± 12 ng/mL (P < 0.001) with no change in the placebo group.

Use disgust to change what foods you desire (the opposite of what commercials do) - Participants were randomly assigned to active or control IP. In active IP (n= 22), high-calorie food images were implicitly primed with negatively valenced images, and low-calorie food images were implicitly primed with positively valenced images. This study provides initial evidence that IP can be used to alter high-calorie food preferences, which could promote healthier eating habits.

Exercise allows healthy obesity - Of 3457 adults, 616 were obese [body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥30]; 161 (26%) of those were healthy obese. Obese adults were less physically active than were normal-weight adults. Higher total physical activity in healthy than in unhealthy obese adults is evident only when measured objectively (more than 2.5 hr/wk of at least moderate exercise), which suggests that physical activity has a greater role in promoting health among obese populations than previously thought.

People with higher BMIs require more fish oil (up to 10g/day) - Our findings indicate that apolipoprotein E genotype and BMI may be important variables that determine the plasma long-chain PUFA response to dietary fat manipulation. APOE4 carriers with BMI ≥25.5 may need higher intakes of DHA for cardiovascular or other health benefits than do noncarriers. [8 wk of consumption of a high–saturated fat diet with the addition of DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (HSF + DHA diet; 3.45 g DHA/d and 0.5 g EPA/d)]. 

Cesarean delivery perturbs the gut microbiome, contributing to greater BMI but not other risk factors.

Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants -  Vitamin D supplementation is recommended for breastfed infants. Pregnant women (n = 226) were randomly allocated to receive 10, 25, or 50 μg vitamin D3/d from 13 to 24 wk of gestation until 8 wk postpartum, with no infant supplementation. Maternal supplementation beginning in gestation with 50 μg vitamin D3/d protects 98% of unsupplemented breastfed infants against 25(OH)D deficiency (<30 nmol/L) to at least 8 wk, whereas 10 or 25 μg vitamin D/d protects only 57% and 84% of infants, respectively.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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So, does free will exist? Yes, if not in ultimate reality, then at least in the operational sense necessary for sanity… E. O. Wilson, The Meaning of Human Existence

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