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SUBJECT: J Nutrition July, 2015 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Education helps women breastfeed at least 6 mos before introducing any complementary foods, as the World Health Organization recommends - Although the WHO recommends that complementary feeding in infants should begin at 6 mo of age, it often begins before this in developed countries. Providing an lactation consultant and educational resources at 4-mo postpartum to predominantly well-educated, mainly European, women can delay the introduction of complementary foods until 5 mo of age, but not until the WHO recommendation of 6 mo.

Children 5 to 12 with vitamin B12 deficiency suffer grade repetition and high absenteeism

Older adults need more protein to prevent muscle loss (3% per year on average) -  Our findings suggest that maintaining adequate protein intake with age may help preserve muscle mass and strength in adult men and women. Age-related decline in muscle mass and strength is an important public health issue because it is associated with greater risk of falls, fractures, disability, and loss of independence. It is estimated that adults over the age of 50 y lose ∼1–2% of muscle mass per year. Muscle strength declines by 1.5% annually between 50 and 60 y and by 3% thereafter. In the United States, the estimated health care cost attributable to age-related decline in muscle mass and strength was $18.5 billion in 2000.

Palm oil raises LDL cholesterol, unlike most vegetable oils - Palm oil contains a high amount of saturated fat compared with most other vegetable oils. Palm oil consumption results in higher LDL cholesterol than do vegetable oils low in saturated fat and higher HDL cholesterol than do trans fat–containing oils in humans. The effects of palm oil on blood lipids are as expected on the basis of its high saturated fat content, which supports the reduction in palm oil use by replacement with vegetable oils low in saturated and trans fat.

5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) reduce cardiovascular disease risk - Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors provides stronger protection against metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL)  in Puerto Rican adults than individual components.

Vitamin B12 dose three times the RDA is recommended for pregnant women - We sought to quantify the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the vitamin B-12 status response to a known and highly controlled vitamin B-12 intake. Pregnancy and lactation alter vitamin B-12 status in a manner consistent with enhanced vitamin B-12 supply to the child. Consumption of the study vitamin B-12 dose (∼3 times the RDA) increased the bioactive form of vitamin B-12, suggesting that women in these reproductive states may benefit from vitamin B-12 intakes exceeding current recommendations.

Increasing fruit and vegetable intake (FV) in this trial of 89 obese people did not improve the cardio risk factors that were measured - Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: to consume either 2, 4, or 7 portions (equivalent to 160 g, 320 g, or 560 g, respectively) of FVs daily for 12 consecutive weeks. 89 participants completed the study and body composition remained stable throughout the intervention period. Despite good compliance with the intervention, no significant difference was found between the FV groups for change in measures of ambulatory blood pressure, plasma lipids, or inflammation marker hsCRP concentrations.

Evidence to support joining the Teaberry Trial - Supplementation with Quercetin (from blueberries) and epicatechin (from green tea) have cardio benefits and reduce inflammation - Consumption of flavonoid-rich foods such as cocoa and tea may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. The flavonoids epicatechin (in cocoa and tea) and quercetin (in tea) probably play a role by reducing endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, 2 main determinants of atherosclerosis.  In (pre)hypertensive men and women, epicatechin may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of cocoa and tea through improvements in endothelial function. Quercetin may contribute to the cardioprotective effects of tea possibly by improving endothelial function and reducing inflammation. For information on joining our teaberry study, click here.

Probiotic consumption increases beneficial anti-inflammatory response - We investigated whether daily consumption of a probiotic [Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 (BC30); GanedenBC30] could improve immune function and gut function in men and women aged 65–80 y, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. Daily consumption of BC30 by adults aged 65–80 y can increase beneficial groups of bacteria in the human gut and potentially increase production of anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Citrulline supplements improve body composition and age-related metabolic changes in rats - the loss of muscle mass, strength, and performance, i.e., sarcopenia, that begins in middle age and worsens progressively is associated with mobility disorders, increased risk of falls and fractures, impaired ability to perform activities of daily living, and increased risk of death. Muscle loss is also often associated with fat mass accumulation, which plays a major role in metabolic disturbances (insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation, and dyslipidemia), thus further accelerating the aging process. Citrulline treatment (1g ⋅ kg−1 ⋅  d−1) in male aged rats favorably modulates body composition and protects against lipid oxidation and, thus, emerges as an interesting candidate to help prevent the aging process.

Proteins in salmon have great health benefits - We previously reported that fish proteins can alleviate metabolic syndrome (MetS) in obese animals and human subjects. Low-Molecular-Weight Peptides from Salmon Protein Prevent Obesity-Linked Glucose Intolerance, Inflammation, and Dyslipidemia.

A high fat diet induces inflammation, a major cause of chronic disease - Obesity is a major public health problem worldwide. Etiologically, a high percentage of calorie intake derived from dietary fat represents an important contributor to this metabolic disorder. The high-fat diet induced inflammation in pigs and affected their gene expression of selenoproteins associated with thioredoxin and oxidoreductase systems, local tissue thyroid hormone activity, endoplasmic reticulum protein degradation, and phosphorylation of lipids.

The false dichotomy of localism and supercenter-ism - In the United States, at least one-half of organic foods are purchased at supermarkets and supercenters, and these venues account for a rapidly increasing share of local produce sales. The goal of this commentary is not to be a systematic review of the literature, but to caution against demonizing supercenters and glorifying farmers’ markets. [ed. note - I caution against their opinion - the US laws about "organic" label were defined by supercenter lobbyists. It is so expensive to acquire the label organic that small farmers cannot afford to label their products as organic.]

Data on world and US Population, Poverty, and Value of animals for food security- A conservative projection shows the world’s population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet.

A high protein soy snack bar each afternoon is wonderful for 17 yr olds - The purpose of this study was to compare 1088 kJ of high-protein (HP) or high-fat (HF) afternoon snacks vs. no snacking on appetite, food intake, mood, and cognition in adolescents.  Afternoon snacking, particularly on HP soy foods, improves appetite, satiety, and diet quality in adolescents, while beneficially influencing aspects of mood and cognition.

Half of the people in the US take at least one vitamin supplement

Drinking milk that has important sugars improves the gut immune system reducing inflammation and food allergies - The gut health-promoting effects of nondigestible oligosaccharides have been broadly acknowledged. In particular, selected fractions of milk-derived galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) are of interest because of their potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. GOSs, which resemble oligosaccharides that occur naturally in human breast milk, are currently used in infant formulas. They are expected not only to modulate the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiota by increasing Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus spp. numbers, but seem to prevent specific pathologies involving the gut immune system, such as food allergies and inflammatory bowel disease, as demonstrated in clinical trials.

Globally, food insecurity currently affects nearly a billion people, including 20 million children aged <5 y. Hunger is principally caused by poverty, which currently affects ∼15.8% (21.8% for children aged <18 y) of the population in the United States and represents the highest poverty rate since 1993. Thus, 48.8 million US citizens live in poverty, which is nearly twice the total population of the 10 largest US cities. 2.3 million American households, representing 2.8 million children, live in extreme poverty, meaning their income is ≤$2/d per person. Food insecurity in the US is twice as common as in Canada.

[Note this is written by a Professor of Animal Science at North Dakota State Univ] Meat, milk, eggs, and other animal products, including fish and other seafoods, will play an important role in achieving food security for several reasons. First, animal products are an important source of high-quality, balanced, and highly bioavailable protein and numerous critical micronutrients, including iron, zinc, and vitamins B-12 and A. Second, global demand for animal products is almost certain to continue to increase dramatically.Third, farm animals improve nutritional status and additional resources such as manure for fertilizer, on-farm power, and other by-products, and, provide economic diversification and risk distribution. Fourth, ruminants such as buffalo, cattle, goats, and sheep, efficiently convert the forages from grasslands into high-quality animal products. The FAO of the UN estimated that livestock, and especially ruminants, contribute as much as 18% of greenhouse gas emissions, but others have suggested that this is a gross overestimate and that the actual value may be as low as 3%. 

The Biomarkers of Nutrition for Development (BOND) project is designed to provide evidence-based advice to anyone with an interest in the role of nutrition in health. Specifically, the BOND program provides state-of-the-art information and service with regard to selection, use, and interpretation of biomarkers of nutrient exposure, status, function, and effect. To accomplish this objective, expert panels are recruited to evaluate the literature and to draft comprehensive reports on the current state of the art with regard to specific nutrient biology and available biomarkers for assessing nutrients in body tissues at the individual and population level. Phase I includes biomarkers for 6 nutrients: iodine, iron, zinc, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin B-12.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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Food to the indolent is poison, not sustenance- Life and Times of Frederick Douglass

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