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SUBJECT: AJCN July 2015
Everyone: Switching from saturated fats to unsaturated oils benefitted blood pressure and lipid biomarkers - Substitution of 9.5–9.6%TE dietary SFAs with either MUFAs or n–6 PUFAs had beneficial effects on serum lipid biomarkers, blood pressure, and E-selectin, offering a potential public health strategy for CVD risk reduction.
Higher alcohol intake decreases coronary artery disease but not mortality - Many observational epidemiologic studies of the association between alcohol use and the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been conducted, with most studies observing the lowest risk of disease among light to moderate drinkers, whereas abstainers and heavy drinkers have higher rates of CAD. The lowest risk is seen among those with an average consumption of 33 g/d, which is ∼20% lower than among nonusers. A standard cohort analysis of the twins as individual men showed that baseline alcohol use was associated with a 6% reduced risk of CAD per 10 g alcohol use per day. No association was seen for cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality, implying that alcohol conferred an increased risk of non-CAD mortality.
Beneficial vitamin K comes partly from gut microbiome - Emerging evidence suggests novel roles for vitamin K in cardiovascular health, inflammation, glucose homeostasis, cognitive function, and cancer. The human gut is thought to be a menaquinone reservoir and is estimated to contribute to 10–50% of the human vitamin K requirement.
Higher anthocyanin and flavonol intakes reduce inflammatory health risks - Growing evidence from trials and population-based studies has supported a protective role for flavonoids in relation to risk of certain chronic diseases. An anti-inflammatory effect may be a key component underlying the reduction in risk of certain chronic diseases associated with higher intakes of anthocyanins and flavonols.
Dietary fiber intake reduces risk of hormone-dependent cancers that are increased by alcohol intake - Alcohol intake is associated with increased circulating concentrations of sex hormones, which in turn increases hormone-dependent, breast and prostate cancer risk. Risk increased with alcohol among individuals with low dietary fiber intake but not among their counterparts with higher dietary fiber intake.
Evidence indicates krill supplements are hazardous - Krill supplements, even with salmon oil, increase risk of diabetes in overweight men.
Might become over 50: Adequate folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12, and fish oil slow brain atrophy rate by 50% - Identifying elderly persons with a higher risk of the development of dementia represents a challenge for clinicians and public health authorities. Early detection of cognitive disturbances has guided the conceptualization of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Over the past decade no new medications for Alzheimer disease dementia or for its preclinical stages have been approved. ....Homocysteine is a metabolic product of amino acid methionine and is a key intermediate in pathophysiologic processes associated with oxidative stress. Lowering total homocysteine concentrations by the administration of high doses of supplementary B vitamins (0.8 mg folic acid, 20 mg vitamin B-6 and 0.5 mg B-12) over 2 y slowed down the rate of brain atrophy in elderly subjects with MCI by 50%. Humans should ingest ω-3 fatty acids, B vitamins, or folic acid through diet, mainly from fish (2 servings/week or 2 g fish oil daily), nuts, and vegetables, which are often lacking in the typical Western diet. The annual conversion rate from MCI to dementia varies between 5% and 10% and most people with MCI will not progress to dementia even after 10 y of follow-up.
Protein, calcium, vitamin D, and exercise build and maintain muscle mass, bone density, and kidney function - Achieving a “peak lean body mass” with particular emphasis on muscle and bone mass has become a priority. Current evidence points to the importance of consuming a sufficient amount of dietary protein, calcium, and vitamin D in combination with physical training to build up and maintain strong bones and muscles to reach high peak mass and strength in adulthood. the PROT-AGE study group recommends average daily intakes at least in the range of 1.0–1.2 g protein/kg body weight per day, and those who have acute or chronic diseases need even more dietary protein.
Fish oil increases muscle mass and function in older adults - Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults.
For women: High vitamin D intake increases survival of women with ovarian cancer - In our cohort, higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations at diagnosis were associated with longer survival among women with ovarian cancer.
Australian study shows Mediterranean diet superior for pregnancy - During 9 y of follow-up of 3582 women, 305 women (8.5%) reported a first diagnosis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDPs) in 6149 pregnancies. We identified 4 dietary patterns labeled as meat, high-fat, and sugar; Mediterranean-style; fruit and low-fat dairy; and cooked vegetables. In the adjusted model, the meat, high-fat, and sugar, fruit and low-fat dairy, and cooked vegetable dietary patterns were not associated with HDP risk. The Mediterranean-style dietary pattern (characterized by vegetables, legumes, nuts, tofu, rice, pasta, rye bread, red wine, and fish) was inversely associated with risk of developing HDPs
Enough magnesium in diet improves gestational diabetes outcome - 250 mg magnesium oxide supplementation among women with GDM had beneficial effects on metabolic status and pregnancy outcomes.
Might be concerned about the earth: DASH diet lowers greenhouse gas but may cost more - The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). But careful shopping provides higher nutritional quality at no additional cost.
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator