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SUBJECT: J Nutrition May, 2015

A calorie how much heat food produces when burned in a calorimeter. It has little relevance to how it affects the human body!

Sugar intake accelerates sarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle) - Aging is associated with a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (sarcopenia), which leads to a decrease in mobility and independence and an increase in morbidity. It can result from decreased physical activity, endocrine changes, neural factors, inadequate nutrition, and inflammation but also occurs in well-nourished active healthy elderly subjects.Today, high chronic intake of added sugars is frequent, which leads to inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance. These 3 factors could reduce meal-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and thus aggravate the age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia). Conclusions: High chronic sucrose intake accelerates sarcopenia in older male rats through an alteration of postprandial stimulation of muscle protein synthesis.

Food, like hormones, and far beyond simple nutrition, controls how your body functions - Figure 1 shows how nutrients control gene expression, thus protein composition, in liver, muscle, pancreas, and adipose tissues. Although basic mechanisms of pre-mRNA splicing of introns and exons are reasonably well characterized, how these mechanisms are regulated remains poorly understood. The goal of this review is to highlight selected recent advances in our understanding of the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing by nutrients and modulation of nutrient metabolism that result from changes in pre-mRNA splicing.

25(OH)Vitamin D3 increases breast muscle protein synthesis 3-fold - there has been a growing body of evidence indicating that replacing cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] through dietary supplementation enhances breast meat yield in broiler chickens. This increased the fractional rate of protein synthesis by 3-fold. our findings provide evidence that the effects of 25(OH)D3 on male broiler breast muscle are likely mediated through the mTOR-S6K pathway.

Low vitamin E is associated with severe periodontitis - Periodontitis is a highly prevalent, microbially induced chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by loss of supporting periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. A nonlinear inverse association was observed between serum aT and severity of periodontitis, which was restricted to adults with normal but relatively low aT status.

SYMPOSIUM - Inflammation and nutritional science for programs/policies

Highlights - The INSPIRE process included convening 5 thematic working groups (WGs) charged with developing summary reports around the following issues: 1) basic overview of the interactions between nutrition, immune function, and the inflammatory response; 2) examination of the evidence regarding the impact of nutrition on immune function and inflammation; 3) evaluation of the impact of inflammation and clinical conditions (acute and chronic) on nutrition; 4) examination of existing and potential new approaches to account for the impact of inflammation on biomarker interpretation and use; and 5) the presentation of new approaches to the study of these relations.

Tables 1 and 2: How protein, vitamins A, D, folate, and Zinc and Selenium deficiencies reduce innate immunity functions
Text box 10: Principles of epigenetics - how nutrient deficiencies can harm genetic processes for you and your offspring. Specifically, high-fat diets, micro- and macronutrient deficiencies, and low-protein diet intake during conception through lactation are all deleterious to fetal and infant development. The deleterious effects involve alterations in gene expression and epigenetic programming that converge to induce inflammation, impair the immune system, and cause a series of pathologic conditions at both early and late stages of life. Maternal nutrient intake, maternal infection, obesity, environmental pollution and toxicants, and psychological stress may all influence immune function and inflammation in utero.
Table 7: How iron supplementation carries risks but no clear benefits
Text box 26: How obesity promotes inflammation, damages immune function, and increases hospitalization
Text box 29: How acute stess increases inflammation
Figure 1: How inflammation increases obesity and adipose accumulation and decreases muscle mass
Why the microbiome is essential for healthy immune function - Homo sapiens harbor trillions of microbes, whose microbial metagenome (collective genome of a microbial community) using omic validation interrogation tools is estimated to be at least 100-fold that of human cells, which comprise 23,000 genes. Probiotic and prebiotic products are proliferating in the market in response to consumer demand, and the science and technology around these products are progressing rapidly.
Table 1, pg 1125S- • The human microbiota comprises >100 trillion microbial cells; our adult bodies harbor 10 times more microbial cells than human cells • The human gut microbiome is estimated to contain ∼3.3 million nonredundant genes, compared with the human genome, which consists of 23,000 genes (1) • Microbes make up 90% and human cells ∼10% of cells in the human body • The human gut microbiome is mostly acquired shortly after birth from the maternal and living environment (diet, genotype, environmental interactions) • The metabolic role of the gut microbiota is essential for carrying out functional biochemical processes of human physiology, including the following:  - salvage of energy  - generation of absorbable compounds  - production of SCFAs, vitamins, and essential nutrients  - xenobiotic metabolism  - metabolite production.

Since 1980, the global prevalence of obesity has doubled; in the United States, it has almost tripled. Billions of people are overweight and obese; the WHO reports that >65% of the world’s population die of diseases related to overweight rather than underweight. More than one-third of adults and almost 1 in 5 children in the United States are obese. Globally, the WHO estimates that 500 million adults and almost 43 million children <5 y are obese. There are various complications associated with obesity, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, hypertension, dyslipidemia, stroke, liver and gallbladder disease, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and gynecologic disorders such as abnormal menses and infertility. 

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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"I seem to stagger around this agonized world like a clown, dressed in happiness, hoping to reach the hearts and minds of the young." -Pete Seeger

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