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SUBJECT: AJCN May 2015

Happy Summer from up north.

...Lower your diabetes risk
Higher egg consumption lowers risk for diabetes - Higher egg intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D in this cohort of middle-aged and older men.

The finding that people who eat the most whole grains have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, compared with those who eat the least, is one of the most consistent findings in nutritional epidemiology.

High fat dairy reduces diabetes risk; meat intake increases the risk. Decreased T2D risk at high intake of high- but not of low-fat dairy products suggests that dairy fat partly could have contributed to previously observed protective associations between dairy intake and T2D. Meat intake was associated with increased risk independently of the fat content.

...Lower your risk of chronic diseases
Tea, soy, dark chocolate, blueberries, and flavonoid rich foods reduce all-cause, heart, and cancer deaths- Flavonoids constitute one of the most widely studied class of food bioactive compounds. This interest is largely explained by their antioxidant properties and their suggested role in the prevention of chronic diseases. In 1063 Australian women aged >75 y. When comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of the cohort after a 5-y follow-up, they observed that women with the highest flavonoid intake showed lower all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality [ratio reduced 0.37, 0.34 and 0.25 respectively]. Our results suggest that epicatechin may in part contribute to the cardioprotective effects of cocoa and tea by improving insulin resistance. It is unlikely that quercetin plays an important role in the cardioprotective effects of tea.

Mediterranean diet with nuts and olive oil lowers heart disease risk more than 30% - Identifying the optimal diet (or diets) for chronic disease prevention is a public health priority. Traditionally, nutrition research has focused on single nutrients or specific foods, although individuals do not consume nutrients or foods in isolation. Thus, recent nutritional epidemiologic studies have shifted to dietary pattern analysis, which describes the overall diet; the foods, food groups, and nutrients included; their combination and variety; and the frequency and quantity with which they are habitually consumed. >7000 participants with CVD risk factors and which compared advice to follow a low-fat diet (control) with advice to follow a Mediterranean-style diet along with the provision of either olive oil or nuts. Compared with the control group, both intervention groups experienced an approximate 30% decrease in cardiovascular events after 4 y of follow-up. Any nut consumption (including soy and peanuts) lowered blood pressure. Total nut consumption lowered SBP in participants without type 2 diabetes. Pistachios seemed to have the strongest effect on reducing SBP and DBP. Mixed nuts also reduced DBP. At least the current dietary guidelines lower blood pressure and lipids.

Coffee drinking reduces the risk for colon cancer. Also regular coffee intake reduces the risk of total mortality, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory disease in Japan.

Polyunsaturated fatty acid intake (esp. omega-3) lowers the risk of osteoporotic fractures about 40%.

...Lower your risk for obesity
Low birth weight, sedentary time, and central adiposity are all correlated.

Emotional eating has been linked to heavier weight, obesity, and greater consumption of energy-dense sweet and salty foods. - Emotional eating can be defined as “eating in response to a range of negative emotions such as anxiety, depression, anger and loneliness to cope with negative affect”. Parents who overly control children’s food intake may unintentionally teach children to rely on palatable foods to cope with negative emotions.

Resistance training improves muscle strength. Only combined with dieting did either produce weight loss. Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and overall physical function in older adults. Overweight and obese men and women who were randomly assigned to a progressive, 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT intervention with a weight-loss intervention (RT+CR) or without a weight-loss intervention (RT). Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT group. Fat mass, percentage of fat, and all thigh fat volumes decreased in both groups, but only the RT+CR group lost lean mass. These findings support the incorporation of RT into obesity treatments for this population regardless of whether CR is part of the treatment.

Public policy in Australia increased the purchase of fruits and vegetables by discounting prices.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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“How can I take care of this body and mind to keep them healthy so I can help others?” This is what the Buddha taught. –Living by vow, Okumura

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