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SUBJECT: AJCN Feb 2015
Mature adults need 2g leucine after exercise to maintain muscles - The 2 key strategies for maintaining adequate muscle mass and physical functioning in older adults are regular physical activity, particularly resistance exercise, and sufficient dietary protein intake. Weight cycling (due to repeated attempts of losing weight coupled with the inability to keep weight off successfully in the long run), in particular, is considered problematic because it is difficult for older adults to recover muscle mass once lost. National panels recommend 1.0–1.2 g protein/kg body weight per day and a high dietary leucine content (2.0–2.5 g leucine/d) for older adults, best consumed right after vigorous exercise.
Excess weight gain when pregnant makes baby fat - Associations of early and midpregnancy weight gain with neonatal adiposity support the hypothesis that greater maternal weight gain during pregnancy, regardless of prepregnancy BMI, is directly related to offspring adiposity at birth.
Breastfeeding increases baby's brain power - Breastfeeding has been shown to enhance global measures of intelligence in children. Our findings suggest small but significant benefits of breastfeeding for some aspects of memory and language development in the first 2 y of life.
Visceral adiposity is negatively associated with bone density and muscle attenuation - Contrary to previous reports that high body mass is associated with increased bone quality, our data show a significant negative association between BMI and muscle and bone densities, suggesting fat infiltration into these tissues.
Fish intake reduces risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2 large US cohorts - Although COPD-prevention efforts should continue to focus on smoking cessation, these prospective findings support the importance of promoting a healthy diet including fish, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, n–3 PUFAs, n–6 PUFAs, and a high n–3:n–6 ratio.
Dark chocolate scores for men - Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). But for actual onset of DM, our data support an inverse relation of chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal–body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption.
Risk factors for child's obesity - Five risk factors were defined: maternal obesity [prepregnant body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) >30], excess gestational weight gain (Institute of Medicine, 2009), smoking during pregnancy, low maternal vitamin D status (<64 nmol/L), and short duration of breastfeeding (none or <1 mo). Having a greater number of early-life risk factors was associated with large differences in adiposity and risk of overweight and obesity in later childhood.
Nut consumption reduces risk of dying - Our data are consistent with an inverse association between nut consumption up to above 5 servings/wk and the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality.
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator