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SUBJECT: AJCN Jan 2015

Fiber helps your microbiome keep you thinner - Whole-genome shotgun sequencing showed that dietary fiber shifted the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio toward that previously associated with healthy lean rather than overweight subjects, and this was independent of caloric restriction. Both forms of added fiber altered microbial community structure rather than introducing or removing existing community members. As expected, enhanced metabolic function, particularly related to carbohydrate metabolism, was evident in the fiber-supplemented groups. Less predictable were the changes in genes involved in lipid and B-vitamin metabolism in addition to amino acid metabolism, including peptidases and transporters, which represented the largest enrichment in metabolic pathway genes after fiber supplementation. 

Fiber reduces prostate cancer risk about 30% - Dietary fiber is inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms even among populations with relatively low intake, such as Japanese. These results suggest that a very low intake of dietary fiber is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer.

Eating red meat AGEs increases pancreatic cancer risk 35%, reduced by vitamin C - Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds present in uncooked foods as well as in foods cooked at high temperatures. AGEs have been associated with insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in patients with diabetes. Dietary AGEs are an important contributor to the AGE pool in the body. N?-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) AGE is one of the major biologically and chemically well-characterized AGE markers. The consumption of red meat, which is CML-AGE rich, has been positively associated with pancreatic cancer in men. Vitamin C reduces the level of AGEs one produces.

Adequate sleep keeps you thinner - Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that short sleep duration is associated with obesity and weight gain, whereas short-term experiments have provided valuable mechanistic explanations. Recent intervention studies have also shown that sleep restriction leads to weight gain in humans. Thus, there is a preponderance of evidence to suggest that insufficient sleep is a contributor to weight gain and that healthy sleep habits should be recommended to facilitate body weight control.

After bariatric surgery, uncontolled eating is a greater risk - There is a need for a better understanding of the factors that influence long-term weight outcomes after bariatric surgery. A higher tendency to eat in response to various internal and external cues shortly after surgery predicted less-successful short- and long-term weight outcomes, making postoperative susceptibility for uncontrolled eating an important indicator of targeted interventions.

Chew almonds thoroughly to get their nutrients - Following mastication, most of the almond cells remained intact with lipid encapsulated by cell walls. Thus, most of the lipid in masticated almonds is not immediately bioaccessible and remains unavailable for early stages of digestion.

A single high-fat meal contributes to a fatty liver - In this study, we showed that a single energy-dense, high-fat meal induced net lipid accumulation in the liver. The addition of protein did not change the ectopic lipid retention after a single high-fat meal.

Fish reduces risk of pancreatitis - Our data suggest that the consumption of total fish (fatty fish and lean fish combined) may be associated with decreased risk of non–gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. 

Multivitamin use shows no benefit preventing cardiovascular damage or strokes - In this study of middle-aged and elderly women, neither baseline nor time-varying multivitamin use was associated with the long-term risk of major CVD events, MI, stroke, cardiac revascularizations, or CVD death. 

Low fat, high carb diet hazardous -In this large prospective cohort, circulating palmitic acid and stearic acid were associated with higher diabetes risk. In short-term metabolic studies, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets induce hepatic de novo lipogenesis, which may be a primary mechanism that drives increased fasting triglycerides.

Rice does not harm your heart - Greater habitual consumption of white rice or brown rice is not associated with CVD risk.

Drinking soda pop increases risk of prostate cancer - Phosphorus is independently associated with risk of lethal and high-grade prostate cancer.

Carbon footprint of foods - This article has wonderful figures showing the effect of various foods on greenhouse gas emissions

Vitamin C benefits blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL, and waist-hip ratio - With the use of a meta-analysis of observational estimates, inverse associations were shown between L-ascorbic acid and systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, and the waist-hip ratio, and a positive association was shown with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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“How can I take care of this body and mind to keep them healthy so I can help others?” This is what the Buddha taught. –Living by vow, Okumura

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