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SUBJECT: AJCN Oct 2014 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Life expectancy hits another record high – 78.8. Women can expect 81.2 years.  65 year olds can expect to live nearly 20 more years! Help me lengthen your healthspan by joining my blueberry/green tea clinical trial, which will be open for enrollment very soon. If your name is not on my list yet, please RSVP, SUBJECT: trial info please. Many of you have already replied and been acknowledged by me.

1. Although many obese people are able to lose weight, successful long-term weight loss maintenance is much more difficult to achieve with lifestyle interventions (diet, physical activity, and behavioral therapy), and most patients who have had bariatric surgery also experience some recidivism over time, even when they maintain a substantial weight loss. Why is weight loss so hard to maintain? A prominent theory is that a complex neuroendocrine system regulates food intake and energy expenditure to defend a certain individualized set point in body weight. When weight loss occurs, these regulatory signals spring into action to move body weight back to its original predetermined value. The authors further propose that chronic increases in adiposity cause a progressive upward shift in the body fat threshold that is defended-the "threshold shift paradigm".

2. Intervention of 12 weekly 90 min sessions lowered weight and improved mood of adolescent girls - The intervention with adolescent girls with loss-of-control eating is associated with lower age-adjusted BMI and percentage of adiposity as well as improved mood symptoms over 1 y. Interpersonal psychotherapy further reduced objective binge eating.

3. Mandatory trans fat (TFA) labelling reduces TFA consumption - Fine for Canada, but except New York City and California, most Americans are not aware of the poison they are eating.

4. Probiotics (like yogurt) improve adult bowel function - Probiotics may improve whole gut transit time, stool frequency, and stool consistency, with subgroup analysis indicating beneficial effects of B. lactis in particular. 

5. Older people benefit from protein supplements -  Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of undernutrition in older people.  Intraduodenal protein suppresses appetite and energy intake less in healthy older than in young adults. In older subjects, intraduodenal protein at low doses increased overall energy intake, which supports the use of protein supplements in undernourished older people. 

6. Protein requirements do not change with age - The study shows quite clearly no effect of age and sex, similar to our own findings, with the authors concluding that “there are no compelling data that the dietary protein needs of old people are different from those of young people when expressed per kg body weight. Experimental evidence to date shows that requirement values do not change significantly with advancing age.

7. Screen time, esp. TV, promotes poor nutrition in children - Increases in screen time were associated with increased consumption of foods and beverages of low nutritional quality and decreased consumption of fruit and vegetables. Our results caution against excessive use of screen media, especially television, in youth.

8. Added sugars cause inflammation and periodontal disease - A high frequency of consumption of added sugars is associated with periodontal disease, independent of traditional risk factors, suggesting that this consumption pattern may contribute to the systemic inflammation observed in periodontal disease.

9. Both low and high protein diets are detrimental during pregnancy - Maternal diet during pregnancy can induce developmental adaptations that permanently alter offspring physiology and metabolism. Fetal programming is an important risk factor for obesity- and adiposity-related noncommunicable diseases in adult life. The influence of maternal dietary protein during pregnancy on offspring phenotype and health is generating research interest. Both low-protein (LP) and higher-protein (HP) diets during pregnancy have been associated with detrimental effects on offspring.

10. Children worldwide with diarrhea require zinc - Zinc deficiency is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The WHO/UNICEF strategy for zinc supplementation as adjunctive therapy for diarrhea is poorly implemented.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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