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SUBJECT: J Nutrition Sept, 2014 from Roc Nutrition Investigator

1. Egg yolk lutein reduces risk of macular degeneration - Dietary lutein intake is postulated to interfere with the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Because egg yolk–derived lutein has a high bioavailability, long-term consumption of lutein-enriched eggs might be effective in preventing AMD development. The increase in plasma lutein concentrations in the Egg group was 83% higher than that in the Con group (P < 0.001). Changes in serum total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol, as well as the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol, were not different between the 2 groups.

2. Green tea and caffeine reduce visceral fat and inflammation - Green tea (GT) and caffeine in combination were shown to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, but less is known about the effects of black tea (BT) and oolong tea (OT). All 3 tea polyphenol extracts induced weight loss and anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects, although the tissue content of polyphenols differed significantly.

3. Essential amino acids stimulate muscle growth - Essential amino acids (EAAs) are potent stimulators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis.  13 g of EAA were ingested and increased muscle protein synthesis 50%.

4. High viscosity dietary fiber reduces adiposity - Viscous dietary fiber consumption lowers the postprandial glucose curve and may decrease obesity and associated comorbidities such as insulin resistance and fatty liver. Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and forms the foundation of metabolic disease, profoundly increasing the risk of comorbidities such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The annual rise in costs associated with the diagnosis and treatment of obesity-related disorders is extraordinary and is expected to reach $28 billion/y by 2020. Because pharmacologic approaches to reducing obesity are only modestly successful and can present serious side effects, effective dietary approaches to reducing obesity remain urgently needed.

5. Replacing meat with soy reduces total and LDL cholesterol - Increasing protein intake and soy consumption appear to be promising approaches to prevent metabolic syndrome (MetS). Partly replacing meat with soy in a moderately high-protein diet has clear advantages regarding insulin sensitivity and total and LDL cholesterol. 

6. Get plenty of iodine when pregnant - Maternal iodine status was positively associated with weight, length, and head circumference in boys up to ∼1 mg/L, which is well above the recommended maximum concentration of 0.5 mg/L. The associations leveled off at UIC ≥ 1 mg/L. Our findings support previous conclusions that the advantages of correcting potential iodine deficiency outweigh the risks of excess exposure.

7. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces risk of childhood obesity - Among 97,424 children, after 4–5 y of follow-up,  the present findings suggest that longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding is associated with lower risk of becoming overweight.

8. The first 1,000 days of life are critical to prevent stunting - With 165 million stunted children, linear growth retardation continues to be a major global health problem. Current evidence suggests that effective interventions to reduce stunting should be targeted to mothers and children during the first “1000 days” of life (from conception to age 2 y) and aim to prevent (rather than treat or reverse) stunting.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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