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SUBJECT: AJCN Sept 2014 from Roc Happy Labor Day

Enjoy weekends and benefits to workers brought thanks to labor unions:

Hazards of added sugars - Many articles this month: Lead editorial -Substituting low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) for sugar provides the sweet taste we crave without giving us the extra calories that could contribute to weight gain. LCS consumption may be found to have negative health consequences on body weight down the road; High fructose corn syrup produces excessive energy intake producing fatty liver damage- the apparent association between indexes of liver health (ie, liver fat, hepatic de novo lipogenesis, alanine aminotransferase, AST, and γ-glutamyl transpeptase) and fructose or sucrose intake appear to be confounded by excessive energy intake; Soda consumption increases hip fracture risk 14% - Increased soda consumption of all types may be associated with increased risk of hip fracture in postmenopausal women. Sweetened soda consumption increases rheumatoid arthritis risk 63% -Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soda, but not diet soda, is associated with increased risk of seropositive RA in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors.

Hazard of too many eggs or too much choline - Two egg yolks every day increases risk to your heart. A compound called trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) was discovered whose concentrations in plasma reproducibly track with risk of prevalent cardiovascular disease. TMAO is formed by ingestion of specific dietary nutrients with a trimethylamine moiety, including choline, phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), and L-carnitine, in particular egg yolks.

Low magnesium, high calcium and high phosphorus increase heart failure - Soda and calcium supplements are likely to be hazardous. Nuts, dark leafy greens, and fish are great for you. Magnesium intake improves physical performance - Daily magnesium oxide supplementation for 12 wk seems to improve physical performance in healthy elderly women. 

16% of 20 to 29 yr olds and 28% of 70 to 90 yr olds need to drink more water - water-loss dehydration (serum tonicity ≥300 mOsm/L) was shown in 16% of 20–29-y-olds and increased to 28% of 70–90-y-olds, and in a study of Californian nursing homes, 31% of residents were dehydrated at least once over 6 mo.

People eating meat-rich dietary pattern 65% more likely to die during dietary study compared to soy-vegetarians - The following 2 major dietary patterns were identified by using a principal components analysis: a vegetable-, fruit-, and soy-rich (VFS) pattern and a dim sum– and meat-rich (DSM) dietary pattern; which included 52,584 Chinese men and women (aged 45–74 y). HRs for quintiles 2–5 for all-cause mortality were 0.90, 0.79, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively (P-trend < 0.0001). The DSM pattern was positively associated with CVD mortality in the whole population (HR for fifth quintile compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.40; P-trend = 0.001).

Coffee reduces inflammation and diabetes markers - Coffee consumption showed an inverse trend with CRP [inflammation marker] in women and with triglycerides and phenylalanine in men. However, these markers explained only to a small extent the inverse association between long-term coffee consumption and T2D risk.

Vitamin D supplement vital to mature hearts - In people over 60, at least 800 IU daily reduces heart failure, but not stroke.

Weight loss plateau is from poor diet adherence - An intermittent lack of diet adherence, not metabolic adaptation, is a major contributor to the frequently observed early weight-loss plateau. 

Iron supplements without food may be especially hazardous - Free iron in the blood is likely to generate harmful free radicals. Iron taken without food enters the blood without proper binding to transferrin.

Early DHA (fish oil) intake benefits cognitive success in children - FADS SNPs seem to have a sex-specific, possibly peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor–mediated effect on behavior in children, indicating a programming effect of early DHA exposure.

Vitamin E and C supplements once-a-day have no effect on cancer risk - After concern vitamin E supplements might increase prostate cancer risk, a study of 15,000 shows no hazard for any cancer.

Processed meat consumption is main hazard for 4-legged meat consumption - Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival—up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d. We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Processed meat consumption is associated with hypertension and 42% greater risk of heart disease - Women who consumed ≥5 servings of processed red meat/wk (50 g = 1 serving) had a 17% higher rate of hypertension than that of women who consumed <1 serving/wk. There was significant 42% higher risk of coronary artery disease per consumption of a 50-g serving processed red meat/d. Processed and unprocessed red meats differ most notably in their sodium and nitrite contents, which are commonly used as preservatives in processed meats. Processed red meat was defined as sausage, salami, bacon, and ham. 

Short-sleep duration does not increase food consumption - Short-duration sleepers began eating earlier and ended their eating later in the day, but despite the longer eating period, they did not report more eating events. Profiles of the relative contribution of main meals and snacks, at or after 2000 h eating, and beverages in short-duration sleepers were suggestive of eating behaviors that may increase energy intake, but 24-h energy intake did not differ among categories of sleep duration.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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