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SUBJECT: AJCN July 2014

Simple eating and exercise reminders for August:

Excess carbs are harmful for children- These data suggest that increased consumption of added sugars may be associated with adverse cardiovascular health factors in children, specifically elevated diastolic BP and triglyceridesHealthy diets are high in carbohydrate. The Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrates is 45–65%. A maximum intake of 25% of added sugars is suggested. Carbohydrates are the primary energy source for active people. Sedentary people, including most Americans, should decrease consumption of caloric carbohydrates to balance energy needs and attain and maintain ideal weight.

Low fat dairy products lower blood pressure in 3 weeks - Subjects underwent a high-dairy condition (+4 servings conventional nonfat dairy products/d) and isocaloric no-dairy condition (+4 servings fruit products/d) in which all dairy products were removed. Both dietary conditions lasted 4 wk. The high-dairy condition produced reductions in systolic blood pressure (135 ± 1 to 127 ± 1 mm Hg) and pulse pressure (54 ± 1 to 48 ± 1 mm Hg) (both P < 0.05). The hypotensive effects were observed within 3 wk.

Eating slower reduces caloric intake -  Twenty-two studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that a slower eating rate was associated with an average 45% lower energy intake in comparison to a faster eating rate.

Exercise, rather than weight loss, improves your brain and life quality - Obesity impairs cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older adults.  Weight loss and exercise each improve cognition and HRQOL, but their combination may provide benefits similar to exercise alone. 

Eating plenty of rice is just fine - Rice consumption is not associated with risk of CVD morbidity or mortality.

Nut intake is inversely proportional to cardiovascular disease - Our meta-analysis indicates that nut intake is inversely associated with ischemic heart disease (IHD) (22% lower risk), overall cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality but not significantly associated with diabetes and stroke. Another study shows that a higher consumption of nuts was associated with reduced risk of coronary artery disease  and hypertension but not stroke or type 2 diabetes. And legumes are also beneficial. This systematic review supports inverse associations between eating nuts and incident IHD and diabetes and eating legumes (14% lower risk) and incident IHD.

Excess carbs are harmful for adults - 12 trials reported blood pressure outcomes. Higher compared with lower sugar intakes significantly raised triglyceride concentrations, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

Too much early growth may be hazardous - The link between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is now well established, and the initial findings have been replicated in many studies worldwide incorporating many different ethnic groups. It has also become increasingly apparent that rapid postnatal “catch up” growth after SGA birth appears to exaggerate the effect of suboptimal growth in utero on risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases later in life.

Low carb intake is important for reducing body weight - A low-GI and energy-restricted diet containing moderate amounts of carbohydrates may be more effective than a high-GI and low-fat diet at reducing body weight and controlling glucose and insulin metabolism.

High GI and GL (list) carbs are worse (article) - The updated analyses from our 3 cohorts and meta-analyses provide further evidence that higher dietary GI and GL are associated with increased risk of  type 2 diabetes. 

Response to tomato (lutein) intake is highly responsive to your genetics - Postprandial chylomicron lutein responses to meals were very variable (CV of 75% and 137% for the lutein-supplement meal and the meal with tomato-sourced lutein, respectively). The ability to respond to lutein appears to be, at least in part, genetically determined.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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"According to Pollan, the food industry, along with nutrition science and journalism, is capitalizing on our confusion over how to eat."-Mary Maxfield