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SUBJECT: J Nutrition June, 2014

1.Dietary pattern is key to long term health - The evidence base for dietary guidance has traditionally relied on research examining the relation between individual components of diet—nutrients, foods—and various health outcomes. Evidence is steadily accruing, however, for a role of dietary patterns in chronic disease prevention, which considers the potential for additive and interactive effects of dietary constituents. Randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that dietary patterns can significantly lower chronic disease risk factors or outcomes, but feeding trials are expensive and burdensome to participants; therefore, most evidence will likely come from observational studies. We examined the relationships between 4 indices—the Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index–2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean Diet (aMED), and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)

2. Substitute fish for meat - Simple Changes within Dietary Subgroups Can Rapidly Improve the Nutrient Adequacy of the Diet of French Adults. The improvement in nutrient adequacy was largely due to substitutions of fish for meat and processed meat (∼30% of the increase in the Diet score).

3. Fish 3x weekly or fish oil reduces heart disease risk at least 22%, though not with a saturated fat diet - Dietary recommendations of moderate intake of fatty fish to patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) resulted in reduction of all-cause (29%) and CVD-related (32%) mortality. Dietary metabolic studies have shown, however, that the antithrombotic effect of n–3 PUFAs may be counteracted by high intake of saturated fat.

4. Healthier diet and health were associated positively with intake of protein, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, and lactose and negatively with sucrose

5. People over 50 may require 50% more protein - This approach takes advantage of the fact that consumption of ∼25–30 g of high-quality protein maximally stimulates muscle protein synthesis in old, as well as young, persons. Data suggest that higher protein consumption may serve as a countermeasure to losses in muscle mass during aging, thereby preserving muscle strength and function. The authors propose that a protein-centered approach to meals may be a practical tactic for effectively maximizing protein synthesis on a daily basis, such that long-term maintenance of muscle mass might be achieved. Although the RDA has weathered the onslaught of its critics and remained unchanged for >70 y, there is continued movement to establish a level of protein intake that is optimal for achieving positive health outcomes, rather than minimal for preventing a deficiency. Last year, an international group of experts was assembled to consider the existing evidence and subsequently published a position paper providing an evidence-based recommendation for an average daily intake of 1.0–1.2 g protein ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ d−1 in people aged ≥65 y for maintaining lean body mass and function.

6. Protein intake attenuates bone loss - High-protein (HP) diets may attenuate bone loss during energy restriction (FR). These data demonstrate that both HP and soy diets suppress PTH, and HP attenuates bone turnover and increases bone mineral density regardless of FR, although these differences do not affect bone strength. The effects of HP and soy may be due in part to enhanced intestinal calcium transporter expression.

7. Caffeine (many cups) and alcohol (1 or 2 drinks) daily preserve cognitive function - Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory.

8. Quercetin attenuates cancer cachexia - Quercetin is a flavanol found mostly in fruits and vegetables. Besides their anticarcinogenic properties, flavanols possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, psychostimulant, cardio-protective, and neuro-protective properties.

9. Grape polyphenols attenuate inflammation - Inflammation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are common denominators for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. Collectively, we have demonstrated that muscadine grape polyphenols (MGP) is effective in attenuating ocular inflammation and ER stress. Our work also suggests that MGP may provide a novel dietary strategy to prevent vision-threatening retinal diseases.

10. Even frozen strawberries lower LDL cholesterol.

11. Drinking sweetened beverages increases stroke risk 20% - The consumption of sweetened beverages such as soft drinks has been associated with adverse effects on markers of cardiovascular risk. The multivariable RRs comparing ≥2 (median: 2.1) servings/d (200 mL/serving) with 0.1 to <0.5 (median: 0.3) servings/d were 1.19 for total stroke and 1.22 for cerebral infarction.

12. Sweetened beverages (SB) now have a 10% excise tax in Mexico because their population is the most obese on earth and SB is the top beverage consumed.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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