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SUBJECT: AJCN May 2014

1. FEATURED: Do impaired memory and body weight regulation originate in childhood with diet-induced hippocampal dysfunction? SFA intake was negatively associated with both forms of memory, whereas omega-3 fatty acid intake was selectively positively associated with hippocampal-dependent relational memory. Previous research has identified obesity and increased body adiposity in midlife with late-life cognitive dementias such as Alzheimer disease. However, there is also evidence that cognitive deficits related to obesity may begin decades earlier. For example, recent reports have linked high BMI and body adiposity in children and adolescents to deficits in indexes of inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and decision making and with increases in impulsivity and perseverative errors.  consuming a Western diet is associated with hippocampal dysfunction in children aged 7–9 y. Specifically, they found a significant correlation between intake of saturated fat (self-reported by the children with the help of their parents) and performance on a hippocampal-dependent relational memory task. In contrast, the consumption of foods high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are not a major component of the Western diet, was positively and significantly correlated with relational memory performance. Intake of refined sugars has been associated with learning and memory impairments in both rodents and adult humans. 

2. Dietary Guidelines raise seafood intake to provide more fish oil - The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise Americans to consume 8 ounces (227 g) of seafood per week to reach an average intake of 250 mg/d of the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. Of adults sampled, 4.6% showed blood concentrations ≥5.8 μg mercury/L, the Environmental Protection Agency's cutoff for the dose without an appreciable lifetime risk of deleterious effects.

3. Dairy calcium attenuates fat uptake from food - Compared with the control diet, milk- and cheese-based diets attenuated saturated fatty acid–induced increases in total and LDL cholesterol and resulted in increased fecal fat excretion.

4. Infant food with excessive protein increases obesity - Avoidance of infant foods that provide excessive protein intakes could contribute to a reduction in childhood obesity. 

5. Trans-fats substantially increase stroke risk in men - We show that sex modifies the association between TFA intake and stroke; for every 2-g/d increase in TFA intake, there was a 14% increase in the risk of stroke in men but not in women.

6. Industry-sponsored studies show lower risk of obesity from sugar-sweetened beverages; independent reviews show much greater risk - Industry-funded reviews were more likely to suggest that evidence supporting a causal relation between SSB consumption and weight gain was weak, whereas evidence was generally considered well-founded in other reviews. High fructose corn syrup associated with death - Total fructose intake was weakly positively associated with all-cause mortality in both women and men.

7. Reducing the content of meat and excluding most long-distance imports were of substantial environmental and socioeconomic advantage.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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