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SUBJECT: AJCN Apr 2014

1. FEATURED: High fiber content is critical to carbohydrate quality to reduce inflammation - Chronic low-grade inflammation is a likely intermediary between quality of carbohydrate and chronic disease risk. Chronic, low-grade inflammation is now considered to be intimately linked to the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). In addition, subclinical activation of the immune system has been found to be associated with a range of other diseases, such as dementia, depressive disorders, and certain types of cancer. Finally, low-grade inflammation is associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality in old age. Dietary fiber intake is considered to reduce chronic inflammation by decreasing lipid oxidation and beneficially interacting with gut microflora via regulatory influences of short-chain fatty acids produced from colonic fermentation of fiber. Whole-grain foods are additionally rich in several bioactive compounds with antiinflammatory properties, such as free radical scavenging, antioxidant enzyme activation, or modification of the redox status of tissues and cells. In addition, viscous fiber from oats or barley may slow the rates of glucose appearance in the blood. 

2. Fat, fried foods, sugar and low fiber diets are hazardous - Hepatic steatosis is associated with a greater intake of fat and fried foods, whereas visceral obesity is associated with increased consumption of sugar and reduced consumption of fiber in overweight and obese adolescents at risk of type 2 diabetes.

3. Formula makes infants fatter, more mentally challenged, than breast milk - There has been recent interest in producing a lower-calorie, lower-protein–containing “standard” cow-milk–based infant formula, given the increased weight gain observed in formula-fed compared with breastfed infants by 12 mo of age and the reported increased risk of overweight and obesity for the formula-fed infant. At the same time, it has been a long-term goal to create an infant formula that will optimize the neurodevelopmental outcomes of formula-fed infants to be comparable to those reported in breastfed infants.

4. Slightly greater BMI and protein intake is better for survival and bone strength over age 65 - For people over 65, being overweight was not found to be associated with an increased risk of mortality; however, there was an increased risk for those at the lower end of the recommended BMI range for adults. The authors show that in adults aged ≥65 y the relation between BMI and mortality is U-shaped. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA or safe amount of protein intake for both adult men and adult women is ∼0.8 g of good-quality protein per kilogram of body weight per day. The current RDA and EAR for older women may be underestimated. Higher biomarker-calibrated protein intake within the range of usual intake was inversely associated with forearm fracture and was associated with better maintenance of total and hip BMDs. 

5. Serve your kids smaller portions and give them healthy choices - These findings underscore the strong relation between portions offered by caregivers and the amounts children consume at a meal.  Factors unrelated to the child (such as the amount a parent serves himself or herself) are important predictors of children's consumption. For food choices, genetic effects dominated for more nutrient-dense foods (vegetables, fruit, and protein), whereas shared environmental effects dominated for snacks, dairy, and starches. 

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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“How can I take care of this body and mind to keep them healthy so I can help others?” This is what the Buddha taught. –Living by vow, Okumura

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