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SUBJECT: Symposium on Diet from birth to 24 months

Symposium on Diet from birth to 24 months

This project represents the first step in the process of applying systematic reviews to the process of deciding whether the evidence is sufficient to include this age group in future editions of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Here are some highlights:

SOME RESULTS:
Early introduction of complementary foods may prevent food allergy.
Higher protein intake has been shown to result in increased weight gain in formula-fed compared with human milk–fed infants.
The AAP recommends no juice before 6 mo of age, introduction into the diet only when the infant is drinking from a cup, and limited to 4–6 ounces/d.
Current guidance recommends against introducing fluid cow milk before 12 mo of age.
because human milk is a poor source of vitamin D and cannot meet the needs for iron and zinc by ∼6 mo, the infant's needs for these nutrients are a concern. Intake of complementary foods rich in iron and zinc is important for breastfed infants.
Breastfed infants have a more diversified exposure to the volatile elements of the maternal diet via mother's milk, whereas the formula-fed infant's dietary exposure is more “monotonous.” 
| Excessive intakes of foods that contain high amounts of salt (NaCl) and refined sugars (and consequently, taste salty and sweet) cause or exacerbate a number of illnesses, including hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. 
Nearly one-half of the infants born in the United States participate in the WIC program. By October 2009, all WIC clinics introduced a new WIC food package to reflect the DGA as well as the infant feeding practice guidelines of the AAP.
Limited evidence implicates early weaning with increased calorie intake and overweight/obesity.
Short sleep duration and its relation with obesity risk, appetite, and dietary quality is an emerging area of inquiry. Most studies have been performed in adults and older children, but there are also some cohort studies in infants and toddlers that have shown a link between shortened sleep duration (<12 h in a 24-h period) and increased BMI.
Television viewing has been associated with increased risk of adverse dietary outcomes including obesity risk.
Household food insecurity (lack of access to an available and nutritious diet) remains a major public health problem, affecting an estimated 21.8% of US households with children under age 6 y. Rates may be as high as 49.9% for low-income, female-headed households with children. 

AREAS TO STUDY: Data and research needs for supporting guidelines for infants from birth to 24 mo • Human milk composition: need for up-to-date analyses of human milk across populations including Nutrients Bioactive components of human milk • Nutrient specification for infant formulas: the need to update is driven by new information about human milk composition • Factors affecting the ontogeny of the gut miocrobiome: need for expanded understanding of its impact on nutrition and role in human health and development • Dietary patterns of infants >6 mo: the need for expanded understanding of Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding (is the 6-mo “line in the sand” justified?) Duration of breastfeeding (is there benefit of extended breastfeeding in the United States?)  ? Timing and composition of complementary foods Timing of introduction of allergens (is earlier better?) • Role of maternal nutrition and health on successful lactation initiation and performance Dietary factors influencing human milk composition Impact of body composition on breastfeeding initiation, duration • Social/behavioral context influencing infant feeding choice

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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Researchers had one group meditate, one exercise, and one as a control.  Those who meditated missed 76% fewer days of work, those who exercised missed 48% fewer. -Sci Am. Mind Nov/Dec '12

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