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SUBJECT: AJCN Mar 2014

1. Probiotics have great benefit - More than 500 bacterial species exist within the alimentary tract, the composition of which has been implicated in obesity and its downstream complications. Modulating the gut microbiome via probiotics and prebiotics has been shown to be beneficial in NAFLD in both animal and human studies. Probiotics, which are live commensal organisms, and prebiotics, which are nondigestible oligosaccharides and polysaccharides that can stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria, can be used together in what is known as a synbiotic. 

2. AfroAmericans need 2000IU of vitamin D daily - the vitamin D RDA to maintain circulating 25(OH)D >50 nmol/L in 97.5% of African American adults is 1640 IU/d. This is considerably higher than the age-specific 600 and 800 IU/d established by the IOM.

3. More vitamin D, more calcium absorbed - It has long been known that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D stimulates calcium absorption.  This trial found no threshold for calcium absorption at the various doses of vitamin D supplementation. Specifically, after 8 wk, the researchers found increases of 3.9%, 5.0%, and 6.7% in fractional calcium absorption  in response to 800, 2000, and 4000 IU vitamin D3/d.

4. Eating olive oil instead of butter reduces LDL and body fat -  These results suggest that replacing dietary PA with OA reduces the blood LDL concentration and whole-body fat oxidation by modifying the saturation index of circulating and tissue lipids. In women, these effects are also associated with a higher production and accumulation of acylcarnitines, possibly reflecting a shift in fat catabolism.

6. Reducing salt in processed foods could reduce heart disease and stroke by 5%

7. Polyphenols and fish oils reduce oxidative stress and serum triglycerides

8. In a small study, high neonatal vitamin D levels increased cholesterol and overweight in offspring at age 35 - Higher neonatal 25(OH)D3 was associated with higher fasting insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol (in women) concentrations and with a higher risk of overweight at 35 y of age but not with other adult cardiovascular disease risk factors.

9. Chronic peanut consumption has great health benefits - peanut consumption offered significant benefits to participants with elevated serum lipids and blood pressure. 

10. Fish intake benefits pregnancy - This large, international study indicates that moderate fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of preterm birth and a small but significant increase in birth weight.

11. Women overweight before pregnancy are less likely to breastfeed

12. People consuming low-calorie and sweetened beverages have poorer diets - Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) –beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

13. 8.4% of young women are food addicts - The prevalence of food addiction was 8.4% in the younger cohort of women aged 45–64 y and 2.7% in the older cohort of women aged 62–88 y. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) (45) is a psychometrically sound tool to identify food addiction that translates the substance-dependence diagnostic criteria (6) to apply to the consumption of highly palatable foods (eg, chocolate and French fries). 

14. Fish oil increases the risk of endometrial cancer 79% - Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic cancer among women (10), and, although the prognosis from this disease is generally good (10), there is a need to better understand factors that could modify risk. In addition to risk factors of obesity (11) and aspirin (12),  women in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of dietary EPA + DHA intake had a 79% increased risk of endometrial cancer.

15. American diets have improved since 2003 - In the past decade, the United States has seen declining energy intakes and plateauing obesity levels. US consumers have exhibited changes in intake and purchasing behavior since 2003 that were independent from changing economic conditions linked with the Great Recession or food prices. Public health efforts in the past decade may have contributed to this trend.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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“How can I take care of this body and mind to keep them healthy so I can help others?” This is what the Buddha taught. –Living by vow, Okumura

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