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J Nutrition Sep, 2013 -- Links to the abstracts of articles are at the start of the synopses below. Unusual items this month!
SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
Dietary Protein reduces obesity more than fat or carbs - we used a factorial ANOVA design to investigate the effects of protein form (intact vs. hydrolyzed casein) and protein level (16 vs. 32 energy percent protein) on body mass gain and adiposity. The mice fed hydrolyzed casein had greater ex vivo inguinal white adipose tissue non-CO2 β-oxidation capacity along with induced expression of genes involved in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial uncoupling.
Fructose is worst carb for cholesterol levels - we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of human, controlled, feeding trials involving isocaloric fructose exchange for other carbohydrates to quantify the effects of fructose on serum total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), and HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult humans. Very high fructose intake (>100 g/d) increases serum LDL-C and TC concentrations.
High salt diet increases age-associated declines in cognitive, behavioral, and cardiovascular functions - Blood pressure was higher, anxiety greater, short term memory worse, and oxidative stress greater in 20mo old vs 2 mo old rats on the high salt diet.
At midlife (30-54) one needs exercise for fish oil to reduce heart disease risk - In midlife adults, habitual physical activity may be necessary to unmask the salutary effects of n3 fatty acids on cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance.
Vitamin D important for pregnant women - Intake of vitamin D supplements led to a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (−0.65 vs. −0.12), systolic blood pressure (−0.2 vs. +5.5 mm Hg), and diastolic blood pressure (−0.4 vs. +3.1 mm Hg) compared with placebo.
Polyphenol intake reduces risk of dying - participantsaged 65 y and older in the highest tertile of total dietary polyphenol at enrollment had a lower mortality rate than those in the lowest tertile [HR = 0.70]. What are polyphenols? Flavonol intake lowers risk of Type 2 Diabetes by 26%.
High iron level increases diabetes risk - our results indicate an independent and significant positive association between higher plasma ferritin, a marker of elevated body iron stores, and increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults, which is similar to Western populations.
Dietary n6:n3 Fatty Acid Ratio during Pregnancy Is Inversely Associated with Child Neurodevelopment - we evaluated associations between daily maternal Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids intake during the last 3 months of pregnancy with the child’s language at age 2 y and with different assessments of development at age 3 y.
Other Roc Readings
Exercise: From Science 341:856 (23 Aug 2013) - Obesity has increased worldwide; is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, sleep apnea, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, and other ailments; and has been associated with disability, mortality, and enormous health costs. A BMI greater than 30 is associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and other diseases, whereas a BMI less than 18.5 is associated with increased mortality from chronic wasting diseases, smoking, and cancer. Importantly, the mortality rate was lowered by increased physical activity independently of BMI and race.
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