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SUBJECT: Special Notes from Roc Nutrition Investigator

Here are many notes I have accumulated over the year that I feel are worth sharing:

1) Science 340: 1526 (28 June 2013)  Though we lack free will, compatibilism allows moral responsibility.
Because most biological scientists (including the authors) believe that behavior is a function of the brain whose properties are determined by genetics and experience, one wonders where that leaves moral responsibility and “free will.” In an unoriginal discussion, Satel and Lilienfeld favor “compatibilism”—as did Aristotle (384–322 BCE) and, more recently, Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and David Hume (1711–1776). In the authors' formulation,Even if human beings lack ultimate freedom (that is, they lack the capacity to have done otherwise), we can consider mentally intact adults morally responsible because they have the abilities to engage in conscious deliberation, follow rules, and generally control themselves.

2) Science 340: 1539 (28 June 2013)  Research Offers Hope for More Effective Stroke Treatments -  Up to 70% of strokes are preventable by fairly simple measures such as blood pressure control, improved diet and exercise.  Consider taking 500 mg vitamin C twice a day which clinical trials in Japan found reduce stroke damage 50%.

3) Science 341: 44 (5 July 2013) The Long-Term Stability of the Human Gut Microbiota –Early gut colonizers, such as those acquired from our parents and siblings, have the potential to exert their physiologic, metaolic, and immunologic effects for most, and perhaps all, of our lives.  Usually more than 96% of their genome content is identical among mother daughter and sister sister microbiomes.

4) Science 341: 43 (5 July 2013) The figure in this article shows how the cortical cells originate, including these cell types: neuroepithelial, radial glial, oRG, migrating neurons, astrocytes, mature neurons, and interneurons.

5) Science 341: 134 (12 July 2013) Prostate Cancer Takes Nerve – Inflammation associated with neurogenesis in the prostate is the main driver of prostate cancer.  The findings of Magnon et al. “credential” the neoneurogenic process as a highly relevant therapeutic target for both the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer. Note fish oil reduces inflammation.

6) Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers [http://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=13727] - Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways.  Long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

7) How Does Fetal Environment Influence Later Health? Science 340:1160 (7 June 2013) All newborns are "an expression of the mother," and "The mother's body is the product of her lifetime nutrition," he says—and even her own mother's nutrition, too, because most or all of her eggs are formed before birth.  There's broad agreement that the fetal world, the most rapid period of human growth and development, shapes one's risk of future disease. No matter what the stressor on the fetus, studies of people and animals suggest that the output is similar: a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, heart disease, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. Hearts have fewer muscle cells. Kidneys have fewer nephrons for filtering urine. There's less skeletal muscle in limbs and fewer insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.   Then there are the myriad studies suggesting that pregnant women (or pregnant rodents) who suffer from common infections like the flu or a days-long fever are more likely to have offspring who develop autism or schizophrenia.

8) 8) EAT ENOUGH PROTEIN TO LOSE WEIGHT –
http://jn.nutrition.org/content/143/5/591.abstract
You need to get 0.8 g/kg of your body weight (BW) to avoid weight retention, 1.2 g/kg to lose weight.
BW lbs           1.2g/kg in oz     in kg           BW kg
100                2                         45               55
150                3                         68               82
200                4                         91             109
250                5                       114             136
A hamburger patty has 4 oz or 28 g of protein. A 3 oz can of tuna has 25.5 g protein of protein.

9) Laura Carstensen. a professor of psychology at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center on Longevity, the author of several books and recipient of numerous distinguished awards.  The following five biggest myths about aging are based on her book, A Long Bright Future.
1. Older People Are Miserable
2. DNA Is Destiny
3. Work Hard, Retire Harder
4. Older People Drain Our Resources
5. We Age Alone

ANSWERS TO READER QUESTIONS
1. InvestigateCHIA seeds for dieting http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salvia_hispanica --I use it and it works! Just add two spoons to water or your food at breakfast, lunch and dinner
ROC COMMENTS: Here's an article indicating they may be good for your health. [http://jn.nutrition.org/content/142/1/64.abstract?sid=2250c9c1-3e70-48c5-a910-48a1681a8c75] There seems to be others supporting their use as well.

2. Investigate gymnema sylvestre tablets for diabetes--I use it instead of allopathic pills and it works!
ROC COMMENTS: Here is a review that is favorable about their benefit. I suggest you read it. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2170951/

3. What about the Duncan diet? Is it any good?  It is the Dukan Diet. It's much like the first Atkins diet. Dieters lose weight rapidly - as much as 1-2 pounds a day during the first phase -- which Dukan says helps to instill lasting motivation. He promises that hunger will disappear after the third day. However, the book warns that dieters may suffer from bad breathconstipation, dry mouth, and fatigue -- all consequences of low-carb, high-protein diets.  I found nothing in the legitimate literature about this diet.

4. I found this ted talk that reminded me of the article you sent out about micro biomes a few weeks ago. If you haven't seen it already, it's worth a quick look.

http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxPortland-Jessica-Green-PhD;Featured-Talks?utm_content=awesm-publisher&utm_campaign=&utm_source=tumblr.com&utm_medium=on.ted.com-twitter

5. Hi Roc!  I hope you are doing well, I miss your positive energy! I wanted your opinion on fasting. Now there are many times of fasts now a days, there is water fasting, juice fasting, fruit fasting etc. The 3 I mentioned are the ones I am looking at the most thought. From a health perspective what comments, advice, or opinions do you have about these fasts?
In general fasting is not a helpful thing, and usually just leads to the rebound effect, so you end up gaining weight.  A one day fast on occasionally, as some religions practice, is okay. All of the cleansing processes I have heard of, like eating nothing but cucumbers for a week, have no documented benefit.  If you want a healthy way to eat less, eat a good breakfast with lots of protein, then drink lots of water for the rest of the day, with a light lunch and dinner if you need them, again with mainly protein to eat. HOWEVER, from the Juvenon Nutrition Newsletter, ii. Transient caloric restriction may also stimulate PGC-1alpha and the generation of new healthy mitochondria over time, which is helpful in controlling weight.  NUTRITION INVESTIGATOR ADDS: Caloric restriction involves cutting calories by 30% while still getting all the required nutrients.  This is not fasting, just going hungry.  A high protein content of this diet is what evidence supports to maintain resting energy expenditure (REE).

I hope some of these comments are useful. -Nutrition Investigator, Roc

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