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J Nutrition July, 2013 -- Links to the abstracts of articles are at the start of the synopses below.


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EVERYONE: Sesame seed increases vitamin E and K levels

PREGNANT: Garlic, onions, other alliums and dried fruit reduce infection and pre-term delivery - Several studies have found associations between microbial infections during pregnancy and preterm delivery (PTD). Alliums (garlic, onion, leek, and spring onion) and dried fruits (raisins, apricots, prunes, figs, and dates) were associated with a decreased risk of spontaneous PTD. The strongest association in this group was with garlic [OR: 0.47].

PARENTS: Complementary feeding of vegetable puree to infants increases acceptance of vegetables when they are older - Children’s vegetable consumption is below the public health recommendations. This study aimed to compare learning mechanisms to increase vegetable acceptance in infants at complementary feeding. Initial artichoke intake was significantly related to the number of vegetables offered before the study started. 

MATURE:Yuzu extract may prevent Alzheimer's decline -  We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of yuzu (Citrus junos Tanaka) extract improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in β-amyloid–induced rats. In conclusion, yuzu treatment prevented the cognitive dysfunction and impaired energy and glucose homeostasis induced by β-amyloid infusion.

Selenium inhibits human lung, prostate, and colon cancer cells - In conclusion, porcine serum could be biofortified with Se (1 mg Se/kg bw) to effectively inhibit the proliferation of 3 types of human cancer cells and the action synchronized with a matrix of coordinated functional expression of multiple selenoprotein genes.

Omega-3 fatty acids, lutein, and zeaxanthin slow progression of macular degeneration -The Age-Related Eye Diseases Study 2 (AREDS2) clinical trial is assessing the effects of higher dietary xanthophyll (lutein and zeaxanthin) and long-chain n3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) intake on progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Xanthophylls and LCPUFAs have antiinflammatory, neuroprotective, and antiangiogenic properties. Our data provide potential mechanisms by which the AREDS2 formula has a protective effect on retinal lesions in DKO mice.

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Professor, Biochemistry, Beloit College

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