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SUBJECT: AJCN May 2013

1. Guidelines to prevent risk of death from cancer - The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. A WCRF/AICR score, which incorporated 6 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for men [regarding body fatness, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, and alcoholic drinks (score range: 0–6)] and 7 WCRF/AICR recommendations for women [plus breastfeeding (score range: 0–7)], was constructed. High score had a  34% lower hazard of death. Results of this study suggest that following WCRF/AICR recommendations could significantly increase longevity. (details on page 1110-1).

2. Fiber significantly lowers renal cell carcinoma risk - Plant-based and fiber-rich diets high in vegetables, fruit, and whole grains are recommended to prevent cancer. Intake of fiber and fiber-rich plant foods was associated with a significantly lower risk of RCC in this large US cohort. 

3. How much weight gain provides a healthy pregnancy? - OBESE WOMEN - An older 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee to Reevaluate Gestational Weight Gain Guidelines concluded that there were too few data to inform weight-gain guidelines. Therefore, the committee recommended a single range, 5–9 kg at term for all obese women. NORMAL WEIGHT WOMEN - This 2013 report for normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9) indicated 16 kg at term was the 50%ile.

4. Mediterranean diet decreases hot flashes, fat and sugar increases them -  Diet has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), ie, hot flushes and night sweats. Consumption of a fruit or Mediterranean-style diet decreased the risk of reporting VMSs, whereas consumption of a high-fat and -sugar diet increased the risk of VMSs. 

5. DHA is abundant in the brain - DHA is particularly abundant in brain tissues, and mechanistic data suggest multiple potential roles for DHA in neuronal health. Supplementation improves memory and reaction time in study of adults age 18-45.

6. Pre-natal and adult vitamin D supplementing reduce risk of Parkinson's and schizophrenia - Suzuki et al (2) report the outcomes of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation (1200 IU/d, for 1 y) on various Parkinson disease (PD)–related outcomes. The results strongly suggest that low vitamin D status exacerbates disease progression.There is a growing body of convergent evidence linking low prenatal vitamin D to an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia .

7. Calcium intake below 300mg/day increases risk of stroke - Intake of more than 700mg/day is considered a high intake in Asia.

8. High carb intake may increase dementia risk - Our findings suggest that a higher adherence to a dietary pattern characterized by a high intake of soybeans and soybean products, vegetables, algae, and milk and dairy products and a low intake of rice is associated with reduced risk of dementia in the general Japanese population.

9. Protein has special signals that cause you to feel full - Protein dose-dependently increased satiety and GLP-1, PYY 3–36, and glucagon, which may, at least in part, be responsible for the satiety-stimulating effect of protein.

10. Kids need vigorous, rather than just moderate exercise - In preschoolers, the time spent in Vigorous PA (physical activity) is strongly and independently associated with lower adiposity. In contrast, the time spent sedentary and in low-to-moderate–intensity PA was unrelated to adiposity. 

11. Dieting turns down your basic metabollic rate promoting obesity (though in J. Nutrition in my next newsletter, a study shows that eating enough protein can prevent this hazard!!!) - Weight loss results in adaptive thermogenesis, and there is no indication for a change in adaptive thermogenesis up to 1 y, when weight loss is maintained. The increasing prevalence of obesity and its comorbidities is one of the major health problems in our modern world . Although weight-loss strategies target both sides of energy balance, intake and expenditure, the success of long-term weight-loss maintenance is low. Adaptive thermogenesis, which is described as a decrease in energy expenditure beyond what can be predicted by the loss of fat-free mass (FFM)and fat mass (FM), could be an important factor that compromises the maintenance of a reduced body weight. In origin, this metabolic adaptation is a biologically meaningful survival mechanism that conserves energy in the face of starvation and dangerously low energy supplies. 

12. Red wine consumption has many benefits - Chronic red wine (RW) consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular disease risk, mainly attributed to an improvement in lipid profile. RW intake is also able to [improve] the composition of gut microbiota. 

13. Even short-term fish oil helps the heart - Short-term fish-oil supplementation may favorably influence the frequency domain of heart rate variability, as indicated by an enhanced vagal tone, which may be an important mechanism underlying the antiarrhythmic and other clinical effects of fish oil.

14. Too much salt interferes with calcium and magnesium absorption - Previously, we showed that black girls retained more calcium than white girls did and that salt loading negatively affected calcium retention. Magnesium retention was similar between races but higher with the low-sodium diet. 

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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Researchers had one group meditate, one exercise, and one as a control.  Those who meditated missed 76% fewer days of work, those who exercised missed 48% fewer. -Sci Am. Mind Nov/Dec '12

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