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SUBJECT: AJCN Apr 2013

1. Obesity management at the workplace is more successful - In clinical trials, a major weight loss can be achieved by diet in almost all obese subjects, and a clinically relevant weight loss can be maintained in the vast majority if intensive strategies are applied throughout the entire intervention. The lesson learned from the Diabetes Prevention Program is that the cumulative, combined, total direct cost to the health sector of a lifestyle intervention that produced a weight loss of ∼5 kg and maintained it over 10 y in a single individual was $29,164. An alternative approach to the effort to achieve weight loss in overweight and obese people is to change this from a strictly individual project to a team-based project in their work environment. A group weight-loss program based on a popular published book (The “I” Diet; 5) was the main intervention, with the goal to achieve a 0.5–1.0-kg/wk weight loss during the first 6 mo.

2. Decreased trans fatty acids in the food supply are reflected in decreased trans fatty acids in plasma - The adverse effects of trans fatty acids (TFAs) have been well documented in the scientific literature. TFAs have adverse effects on lipids, inflammatory markers, endothelial function, and insulin sensitivity, all of which translate into an increased risk of cardiometabolic disease .

3. High protein breakfast is especially beneficial for late-adolescent girls - Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to improve satiety, reduce food motivation and reward, and improve diet quality in overweight or obese teenage girls.

4. Getting olive oil unsaturated fats vs. saturated fats benefits mood, decreases anger, and increases physical activity - The replacement of dietary palmitic acid (saturated fatty acid, butter and red meat fat) with oleic acid (unsaturated fatty acid, 70% of olive oil) was associated with increased physical activity and REE and less anger. Besides presumed effects on mitochondrial function (increased REE), the dietary PA:OA ratio appears to affect behavior. 

5. Choline and DHA critical to health whether pregnant or not -DHA plays a critical role in fetal development and is linked to health endpoints in adulthood.A higher choline intake may increase [enzyme] activity, resulting in greater Phosphatidyl choline (PC) -DHA enrichment of the PC molecule in nonpregnant women. Increased production of PC-DHA during pregnancy indicates elevated [enzyme] activity and a higher demand for methyl donors. 

6. Eating consciously reduces overeating - Evidence indicates that attentive eating is likely to influence food intake, and incorporation of attentive-eating principles into interventions provides a novel approach to aid weight loss and maintenance without the need for conscious calorie counting.

7. Getting green tea (catechins - GTC) helps control blood sugar, which reduces diabetes risk.

8. 4,000 IU of vitamin D daily for obese teenagers reduces risk of diabetes. Obese adolescents are at a greater risk of vitamin D deficiency because vitamin D is thought to be sequestered by excess adipose tissue. Poor vitamin D status has been associated with a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, or both in adults and adolescents. The correction of poor vitamin D status through dietary supplementation may be an effective addition to the standard treatment of obesity and its associated insulin resistance. 

9. High vitamin D levels (for most, 2,000 IU daily) reduce risk for death and chronic disease up to 60%. In this large cohort study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In particular, vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentration <30 nmol/L] was strongly associated with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases. Vitamin D deficiency was also associated with increased cardiovascular mortality [1 : 1.39], cancer mortality [1 : 1.42] and respiratory disease mortality [1 : 2.50]. 

10. Human skeletal muscle needs much more vitamin C than leukocytes. So getting 500 mg twice a day may be much better than just 200 mg daily. Vitamin C (ascorbate) is likely to be essential for skeletal muscle structure and function via its role as an enzyme cofactor for collagen and carnitine biosynthesis. Vitamin C may also protect these metabolically active cells from oxidative stress. After intervention with 0.5 or 2 kiwifruit/d, these concentrations increased ∼3.5-fold to 53 and 61 nmol/g, respectively. There was no significant difference between the responses of the 2 groups. Mononuclear cell and neutrophil ascorbate concentrations increased only ∼1.5- and ∼2-fold, respectively. Muscle ascorbate concentrations were highly correlated with dietary intake and plasma concentrations in the range from 5 to 80 μmol/L. Conclusions: Human skeletal muscle is highly responsive to vitamin C intake and plasma concentrations and exhibits a greater relative uptake of ascorbate than leukocytes.

11. Getting 600 mg DHA/day prevents premature birth and inadequate birth weight. Observational studies associate higher intakes of n−3 (omega-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) during pregnancy with higher gestation duration and birth size. A supplement of 600 mg DHA/d (3 g /day of many fish oil supplements) in the last half of gestation resulted in overall greater gestation duration and infant size. A reduction in early preterm and very-low birth weight could be important clinical and public health outcomes of DHA supplementation.

12. Chronic inflammation of the large intestine and rectum is a major etiologic factor underlying the development of colorectal cancer. Consider the No Fours Diet to reduce chronic inflammation.

13. Average daily dietary costs for those on low income is $6 to $7 per day.

14. We are eating a little less - Average US caloric intake went from 1955 kcal/day in 1971-5 to 2269 in 2003-4 to 2195 in 2009-10. After decades of increases, mean energy intake has decreased significantly since 2003–2004.

15. Price discounts and education increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Discounting F&Vs is a promising intervention strategy because it resulted in substantially higher F&V purchases, and no adverse effects were observed.

16. Book review: Something to Chew On: Challenging Controversies in Food and Health, by Mike Gibney, 2012. In recent years, there have been a flood of “blame” books whose underlying goal is to assign the ills of obesity and their associated chronic diseases, production of “Frankenfoods,” genetically modified crops, global warming, poverty, etc, to some entity, usually the food industry or modern agricultural practices, or to poor governmental regulations and inappropriate subsidies/lack of taxation. “Food and health will always remain a hot topic, but it attracts an undue share of writers and opinion formers who have narrow agendas or a somewhat unscientific approach to the topic."

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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Researchers had one group meditate, one exercise, and one as a control.  Those who meditated missed 76% fewer days of work, those who exercised missed 48% fewer. -Sci Am. Mind Nov/Dec '12

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