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Jan J Nutrition 2013
A bit late because of our house fire. Make your New Year even happier with good nutrition which includes exercise!
1. Animal models show benefit of supplemental vitamins C and E to reduce the risk of chronic disease and physiological aging - Dietary antioxidants are essential nutrients that inhibit the oxidation of biologically important molecules and suppress the toxicity of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species. When the total antioxidant capacity is insufficient to quench these reactive species, oxidative damage occurs and contributes to the onset and progression of chronic diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Here, we review the current genetically modified animal models of dietary antioxidant function and their clinical relevance in chronic diseases.
2. Low folate intake promotes colon cancer - Low folate status is a risk factor for colon carcinogenesis; mechanisms proposed to account for this relationship include uracil misincorporation into DNA and global DNA hypomethylation.
3. It remains unclear whether dairy intake affects weight loss - Certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. Whereas animal data suggest a beneficial effect of calcium and dairy proteins on weight loss, human studies have yielded mixed results. In fact, we recently reported that dairy food provided no additional effect to diet-induced weight loss in overweight and obese adults.
4. Low thiamine (vitamin B1) levels increase odds of depression - Thiamine has been hypothesized to play an important role in mental health. In conclusion, poorer thiamine nutritional status and higher odds of depressive symptoms were associated among older Chinese adults.
5. Cheese intake reduces and butter on bread increases the risk of heart attack - Among specific dairy food products, total cheese was inversely associated [HR: 0.74] and butter used on bread but not on cooking was positively associated [HR: 1.34] with myocardial infarction risk.
6. To reduce the risk of gout, limit alcohol and increase these foods - Hyperuricemia is considered to precede gout but has also been associated with increased risk for other diseases, such as renal and cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption may increase uric acid concentrations. Other dietary factors that may increase uric acid concentrations are purine-rich foods (meat, seafood, legumes, and a selection of vegetables) and fructose. On the other hand, vitamin C, coffee, and dairy products have been suggested to independently inversely affect uric acid concentrations. Many of these dietary factors have previously been linked to diabetes risk.
7. Breakfast improves nutrient intakes without exceeding the UL - This study examined associations among breakfast, nutrient intakes, and nutrient adequacy. Breakfast, especially a ready to eat cereal breakfast, is associated with improved nutrient adequacy and does not meaningfully affect prevalence above the Upper Limits for nutrients.
8. Hazard of carbs is not as great as initial studies indicated - Our study shows that digestible carbohydrate intake is not associated with diabetes risk and suggests that diabetes risk with high-glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) diets may be more modest than initial studies suggested.
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“If we knew what we were doing, we wouldn’t call it research.” Einstein