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SUBJECT: AJCN Sep 2012

FEATURES: Book review -The Ultimate Volumetrics Diet: Smart, Simple, Science-Based Strategies for Losing Weight and Keeping It Off - Strongly recommended in this journal for effective weight loss.

1. The challenges of eating a healthy and sustainable diet - As evidence detailing the detrimental effects of food production on the environment continues to mount, several key areas have emerged as priorities for public health nutrition policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to consider. Climate change is one of those. To achieve this goal, changes are necessary to existing food-based dietary guidelines to reflect reductions necessary within certain food groups—for example, meat and dairy foods. Swiss and German guides recommended choosing seasonal, local, and, where possible, organic fruit and vegetables; consuming less meat and fish; and considering packaging. The German advice also advocates purchasing fair trade–certified produce wherever possible. Comparisons between vegetarian and nonvegetarian diets have illustrated vast differences in their environmental impact, with the nonvegetarian diet using 2.9 times more water, 2.5 times more primary energy, 13 times more fertilizer, and 1.4 times more pesticides than the vegetarian diet. Food systems account for 18–20% of UK annual greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs).

GOOD CHOICES: 2. Dark chocolate reduces hypertension and improves circulation - In patients with cirrhosis, dark chocolate blunted the postprandial increase in HVPG by improving flow-mediated hepatic vasorelaxation and ameliorated systemic hypotension.

3. Magnesium intake lowers colorectal cancer risk - Our findings support the hypothesis that higher intakes of dietary magnesium are associated with lower risk of colorectal tumors. The consumption of magnesium-rich foods [nuts, broccoli, fish...] may be a new avenue to explore further in the search for cancer-prevention strategies.

POOR CHOICES: 4. Visceral fat causes low grade inflammation - Low-grade systemic inflammation, particularly elevated IL-6, predicts mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our data suggest that excessive abdominal visceral fat contributes to increased plasma IL-6, which, in turn, is strongly associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older persons with OLD.

5. 12. The consumption of low-calorie beverages has doubled in US children over past decade while the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically. Other research shows these beverages cause an increase in caloric intake from other sources.

6. The US consumes too little potassium and double the safe limit of sodium (salt)

SHOW CAUTION :7. Whole fruit decreases harm of eating sugar - Blackcurrants and lingonberries, as either whole berries or nectars, optimize the postprandial metabolic responses to sucrose. The responses are consistent with delayed digestion of sucrose and consequent slower absorption of glucose.

8. Whole food fruit and vegetable intake improves asthma - Antioxidant-rich diets are associated with reduced asthma prevalence in epidemiologic studies. Improvements were evident only after increased fruit and vegetable intake, which suggests that whole-food interventions are most effective.

9. People need 40% protein per day during critical illness feeding in intensive care - The evidence strongly suggest that 2.0–2.5 g protein substrate · kg normal body weight−1 · d−1 is safe and could be optimum for most critically ill patients. At the present time, most critically ill adults receive less than half of the most common current recommendation, 1.5 g protein · kg−1 · d−1, for the first week or longer of their stay in an intensive care unit.

10. Your coffee consumption level is substantially influenced by your genes

PARENTS AND KIDS:11. Breast feeding is essential to establish infant microbiome (essential bacteria needed for health) -Breast milk is recognized as the most important postpartum element in metabolic and immunologic programming of health of neonates. Our results indicate that milk bacteria are not contaminants. Because bacteria present in breast milk are among the very first microbes entering the human body, our data emphasize the necessity to understand the biological role that the milk microbiome could potentially play for human health.

12. Drinking sugar- or artificially sweetened sodas increase risk of pre-term delivery - Artificially sweetened (AS) and sugar-sweetened (SS) beverages are commonly consumed during pregnancy. A recent Danish study reported that the daily intake of an AS beverage was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. In this study one serving per day (1/2 can) increased risk 11-25%.

13. From 12 wk to 1.5 y body fatness and physical activity in infants are highly interactive - Previous research has shown a correlation between the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and physical activity level (PAL). Between 12 wk and 1.5 y, the results indicate that body fatness and physical activity interact during early childhood and thereby influence obesity risk.

14. Overweight children continue eating even when full - Results: Overweight/obese siblings undercompensated and therefore overate after the high-Energy density preload, whereas normal-weight siblings showed accurate compensation. An impaired ability to regulate short-term energy intake, which includes incomplete adjustment for calorie differences in a preload and eating when satiated, may represent a behavioral phenotype for obesity in children.

- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
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"[I'd like to propose] three rules-'Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.'"-Michael Pollan

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