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J Nutrition December, 2008

SUMMARY -
HOW CONSCIOUS CHOICES MAINTAIN YOUR HEALTH
1. How weight loss, exercise, and antioxidants prevent chronic disease
NEW IDEAS
2. BCAAs promote muscle growth [and fat weight loss]
3. Excess vitamin B6 promotes colon cancer
4. Your genes influence what you eat
PROTECT YOUR BRAIN
5. In addition to fish oil, Cod Fish Protein is beneficial
6. Folate deficiency associated with cognitive decline
7. DHA deficiency also associated with cognitive decline
8. Fried fish and shellfish lack the benefit of non-fried coldwater fish
9. Ratio of meat to fish oil in diet correlates with Alzheimer's
SOY NOTES
10. Soy has health benefits
11. Soy may lower blood pressure but raise blood sugar in men , not effected in women

SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH:
1. How weight loss, exercise, and antioxidants prevent chronic disease - Chronic disease has been strongly correlated with inflammation resulting from the body's release of inflammatory cytokines as a result of injury or infection. Specific interventions promoting weight loss, exercise, or intake of antioxidants have been used by several investigators in an effort to decrease inflammatory cytokines. C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver and its role in the development of inflammation has been well established. However, the strong association between CRP and risk for heart disease is a more recent discovery. During the inflammation process, the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor {kappa}B leads to the increased production of inflammatory cytokines associated with atherosclerosis, including tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF{alpha}). Increased concentrations of TNF{alpha} have been reported in obese patients; thus, weight loss is considered a key intervention to reduce the concentrations of this cytokine...

2. BCAAs promote muscle growth [and fat weight loss] - The BCAA are known for their unique ability to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) independently of other amino acids. When administered orally, leucine alone stimulates MPS ... The mechanism for the anabolic effect involves stimulation of mRNA translation initiation by increasing eukaryotic initiation factor (EIF) 4F complex assembly and signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)...

3. Excess vitamin B6 promotes colon cancer - Adequate intake of folate, methionine, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 may prevent aberrant DNA methylation and thereby protect against colorectal cancer (CRC)...methionine was associated with decreased risk of proximal colon cancer among men and rectal cancer among women...Riboflavin tended to be associated with decreased proximal colon cancer risk among women...This is the 2nd prospective cohort study in which vitamin B-6 intake was associated with increased risk of rectal tumors in women...

6. Your genes influence what you eat - Habitual dietary intake is a complex behavior that may have both biological and nonbiological bases. ..For some food groups (fruit for both genders, poultry and eggs for men), no genetic influence was found, whereas nonadditive genetic effects were demonstrated for other food groups (juices and eggs for women). A number of food groups had shared environmental influences (potatoes, vegetables, fruits, poultry, fish, margarine, and candy).

5. Cod Fish Protein beneficial - Chronic low-grade inflammation has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recently, we showed that cod protein (CP) improved insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant subjects. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary CP compared with those of other animal proteins on plasma concentrations of inflammatory markers, lipids, and lipoproteins in insulin-resistant subjects...these results show that CP can lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of inflammation associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

8. Folate deficiency associated with cognitive decline - Poor folate status is associated with cognitive decline and dementia in older adults... impaired brain methylation activity and homocysteine toxicity are widely thought to account for this association...
DHA deficiency also associated with cognitive decline - The dietary essential PUFA docosahexaenoic acid [DHA; 22:6(n-3)] is a critical contributor to cell structure and function in the nervous system, and deficits in DHA abundance are associated with cognitive decline during aging and in neurodegenerative disease.

7. Fried fish and shell fish lack benefit of other coldwater fish - Few studies have adequately considered the type of seafood and background dietary factors when evaluating diet-biomarker and diet-disease associations. ..concentrations of EPA and DHA in plasma phospholipids were positively correlated with nonfried fish consumption in all 4 ethnic groups but not with nonfried shellfish, fried fish, or fish in mixed dishes. ..Data were suggestive of a plateau effect at a nonfried fish intake of about twice weekly.

9. Ratio of meat to fish oil in diet correlates with Alzheimer's- In healthy human volunteers, positron emission tomography (PET) was used to show that the brain consumes AA (fat in meat) and DHA (fat in coldwater fish) at respective rates of 17.8 and 4.6 mg/d, whereas in patients with Alzheimer disease, AA consumption is elevated.

4. Soy has health benefits - Evidence suggests that 17β-estradiol (E2) contributes to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas the phytochemicals genistein from soy and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM), derived from indole-3-carbinol in cruciferous vegetables, decrease the risk of PCa.
Soy may lower blood pressure but raise blood sugar in men
- Soy protein intake was positively associated with hyperglycemia in men, whereas it was inversely associated with elevated blood pressure. It was not associated with any component in women.

I AM SURE GLAD THAT YOU ARE PAYING ATTENTION TO WHAT YOU PUT IN YOUR BODY. PLEASE HELP YOUR FRIENDS TO PAY ATTENTION TOO!

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