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AJCN December, 2005

[Obesity and omega-3 fatty acid intake] Stephen D Phinney
Fatty acids, inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome
The metabolic syndrome is a locus of 5 biologic indexes that together, in combinations of 3, predict the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Although these 5 indexes—hypertension, insulin resistance, central adiposity, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL cholesterol concentrations—are readily measured in clinical medicine, mechanistically they seem to have little in common… [He] uncovered differences between normal-weight and overweight groups, including higher saturated fatty acids and lower n–3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the overweight group,… These observations indicate that genotype exerts a strong influence on both the nonessential and the essential fatty acid composition, particularly in membrane components, independent of diet… These results suggest a close and causal relation between inflammation and tissue fatty acid distribution, with implications for both insulin resistance (7) and weight gain.

[Plant, Meat, and Dairy Effect on blood pressure] Lyn M Steffen et al. Study of 4304 participants aged 18–30 y at baseline. Conclusion: These findings are consistent with a beneficial effect of plant food intake and an adverse effect of meat intake on blood pressure.

[Overweight adolescents - omega-3 intake may protect from obesity and inflammation] Carine Klein-Platat et al. Conclusions: Plasma FA composition is associated with weight status in healthy adolescents. High intake of long-chain PUFAs, especially n–3 PUFAs, may protect obese subjects against MS and low-grade inflammation as early as adolescence.

[dietary fiber and heart disease] Denis Lairon et al Background: Increased consumption of dietary fiber is widely recommended to maintain or improve health, but knowledge of the relation between dietary fiber sources and cardiovascular disease risk factors is limited. Conclusion: Dietary fiber intake is inversely correlated with several cardiovascular disease risk factors in both sexes, which supports its protective role against cardiovascular disease and recommendations for its increased consumption.

[vitamin C and body shape] Dexter Canoy et al Conclusions: Plasma ascorbic acid was associated with fat distribution independent of body mass index. Differences in dietary intake and lifestyle habits, underlying systemic oxidative stress, or both may explain the inverse relation between fat distribution and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the underlying explanation of these observations. [In other words, people with low ascorbic acid had bigger backsides]

[Soy reduces inflammation] Wendy L Hall et al Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effects of isolated soy isoflavones on inflammatory biomarkers… Conclusion: Isoflavones have beneficial effects on CRP concentrations, but not on other inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women,.

[transfats in diet appear in breast milk] Erin E Mosley et al Conclusions: Milk fat from women living in the United States contains concentrations of trans FAs similar to those in milk from Canadian women but greater than those reported in milk from women in other countries. In decreasing order of concentration, the 10t, 11t, 9t, and 12t isomers represented 78.9% of the total 18:1t. These FAs generally originate from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and ruminant fat in the diet.

[elderly need plenty of B vitamins] David J Stott et al Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of folic acid plus vitamin B-12, riboflavin, and vitamin B-6 on homocysteine and cognitive function. Conclusion: Oral folic acid plus vitamin B-12 decreased homocysteine concentrations in elderly patients with vascular disease but was not associated with statistically significant beneficial effects on cognitive function over the short or medium term.


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