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AJCN Jan, 2012 - Details
Nutrition news for a fabulous 2012
1. Thanks to Bruce Ames for folate increase - Folate fortification reduces neural tube defects 20-80% - The recognition that periconceptional folate supplementation in addition to normal dietary folate intake reduced the incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs), one of the most common birth defects, has led to mandatory folate fortification in the United States and ∼50 other countries (1, 2). Fortification programs have reduced the incidence of NTDs by ∼20–80%.
2. Your skeleton is an endocrine organ! A growing body of evidence supports the role of the skeleton as an endocrine organ, which establishes a cross-talk with energy, glucose, and fat metabolism (1). It has been proposed that there is a direct link between adipose tissue and bone remodeling via leptin (2). Insulin can also influence bone metabolism by stimulating osteoblastic cell differentiation, which leads to osteoblastogenesis and activates insulin-like growth factor 1 (1–4). Recently, osteocalcin—an abundant noncollagenous, vitamin K–dependent protein in bone—has also appeared to be involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and glucose homeostasis. STRONG SKELETONS COME FROM PLENTY OF EXERCISE, VITAMINS D AND K, AND ONLY THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF CALCIUM.
4. Eating protein instead of carbs improves women's health esp. for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) - PCOS4 is the most common endocrine disorder in women and affects 6–8% of women of reproductive age (1). Replacement of carbohydrates with protein in ad libitum diets improves weight loss and improves glucose metabolism by an effect that seems to be independent of the weight loss and, thus, seems to offer an improved dietary treatment of PCOS women.
5. A high protein weight loss diet is better than conventional one - We evaluated whether an energy-restricted high-protein diet with a low glycemic index and soluble fiber (LC-P-LGI) would be more effective than a low-calorie conventional diet (LC-CONV) on weight loss and related metabolic risk factors. We further determined factors that may influence adipocyte size during energy restriction. In comparison with the LC-CONV diet, the LC-P-LGI diet was associated with improvement in some cardiometabolic risk factors and greater reduction in adipocyte size. Profiles of genes involved in inhibiting adipogenesis and angiogenesis, but increasing apoptosis, were correlated with decreased adipocyte size.
6. Beef growers sponsored study shows a little lean beef is fine for health - Conclusions: Low-Saturated fatty acid, heart-healthy dietary patterns that contain lean beef elicit favorable effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) lipid and lipoprotein risk factors that are comparable to those elicited by a DASH dietary pattern.
7. Eating red meat cooked at high temperature increases your risk of renal cell carcinoma - Red meat intake may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds BaP and PhIP.
8. People with low vitamin D levels were 29% more likely to die during studies conducted in Germany.
11. Infants under 1 year should breastfeed and avoid sugar-sweetened beverages - The results suggest that BF for ≥1 y and low SSB intake during the toddler years can have profound effects on reducing the prevalence of obesity in Hispanic toddlers.
12. Give children prizes, not just praise, to improve their diets - The findings of this home-based study support parental use of tangible rewards, like stickers, with repeated taste exposures to improve children's diets.
13. Preference for salty taste is shaped by childhood experience - Dietary experience was related to salt acceptance, with only those infants previously exposed to starchy table foods (n = 26) preferring the salty solutions at 6 mo (P = 0.007).
14. Eat fruits and veggies when quitting smoking - In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking.
16. A web-based applet to predict gestational weight gain - Our energy-balance model provides plausible predictions of GWG that results from changes in energy intakes. Because the model was implemented as a Web-based applet, it can be widely used by pregnant women and their health care providers.
17. US Federal food support for low-income people is associated with obesity and causes high medical expenses - Conclusion: Household SNAP participation was positively associated with BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors among low-income adults.
18. Iron and folic acid supplements in pregnancy improve child survival in Indonesia - USAID please note!
19. Famine harms pregnant women for a lifetime - Women exposed to famine in early gestation had a higher overall adult, cardiovascular, cancer, and breast cancer mortality risk than did women not exposed to famine. No such effects were observed in men .
- Roc, Nutrition Investigator
"[I'd like to propose] three rules-'Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.'"-Michael Pollan