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J Nutrition Nov, 2009 -- SUMMARY - See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles at http://campus.beloit.edu/nutrition/aln/1109jnutr.htm

The other journal reviewed at this site, the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, was recently voted among the top 100 most influential journals of the century! Links to all journal reviews are at http://campus.beloit.edu/nutrition/aln/N409litnotes.htm

CONTROLLING YOUR WEIGHT
1. Saturated fat intake has major effect on weight circumference
2. Stuffing yourself with protein is like sustaining an injury - Fibrinogen is enhanced following inflammation and injury and after ingestion of a meal.
3. Garlic reduces obesity - Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation.
4. Women in Bangladesh, Nepal, and India are more obese

REDUCING CANCER RISK
5. Healthy colon from yogurt reduces colon cancer risk
6. Western diet induces colon cancer - A Western-style diet (WD), defined by high-fat, low-calcium, and vitamin D content, is associated with increased risk of human colorectal cancer.
7. Olives reduces risk of skin cancer

GOOD and bad FOODS and places TO EAT
8. Soy beneficial for men and women - The soy isoflavone metabolite, S-(-)equol, has selective affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)β and also antagonizes in vivo the action of dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
9. Eating at fast food restaurants is bad for your health
10. Whole grains reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
11. High protein diet does not reduce bone strength

SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH
1. Saturated fat intake has major effect on weight circumference - More analysis of DNA and signalling by foods in our diet have demonstrated that eating saturated fat activates a gene in many people that results in their waists getting larger because they store more fat.

2. Stuffing yourself with protein is like sustaining an injury - Fibrinogen is a positive acute-phase protein and its hepatic synthesis is enhanced following inflammation and injury. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrinogen synthesis is acutely stimulated after ingestion of a meal and that this effect can be reproduced by the protein component of the meal alone, both in young and elderly adults.

3. Garlic reduces obesity - Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Limiting white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion and therefore reducing inflammation could be effective in preventing the progression of obesity and the development of associated complications. In conclusion, we demonstrated that 1,2-DT, a garlic-derived organosulfur, has antiadipogenic and antiinflammatory actions on human preadipocytes and may be a novel, antiobesity nutraceutical.

4. Women in Bangladesh, Nepal, and India are more obese - Our aims in this study were to examine trends in the prevalence of overweight-obesity and underweight among women of reproductive age in 3 South Asian countries between 1996 and 2006 and to identify sociodemographic correlates of overweight in the most recent survey. During the study period, the prevalence of underweight decreased substantially in Bangladesh and only modestly in Nepal and India. Overweight-obesity was positively related to age, higher socioeconomic status, and urban residence in all countries.

5. Healthy colon from yogurt reduces colon cancer risk - In conclusion, the results support our hypothesis that the microbiota mediates the effect diet has on colon cancer risk by their generation of butyrate, folate, and biotin, molecules known to play a key role in the regulation of epithelial proliferation.

6. Western diet induces colon cancer - A Western-style diet (WD), defined by high-fat, low-calcium, and vitamin D content, is associated with increased risk of human colorectal cancer.Collectively, these data suggest that consumption of a WD interferes with networks of related biological response pathways involving colonic lipid metabolism, oxidative stress, and the immune response.

7. Olives reduces risk of skin cancer - Chronic exposure to solar UV radiation damages skin, increasing its thickness and reducing its elasticity, and causes skin cancer. These results suggest that the preventative effects of the olive leaf extract and oleuropein on chronic UVB-induced skin damage and carcinogenesis and tumor growth may be due to inhibition of the expression of numerous genes.

8. Soy beneficial for men and women - The soy isoflavone metabolite, S-(-)equol, has selective affinity for estrogen receptor (ER)β and also antagonizes in vivo the action of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT causes male pattern baldness and prostate hyperplasia. It is therefore of interest as a potential new therapeutic agent in hormone-dependent conditions and is under development as a nutraceutical.

9. Eating at fast food restaurants is bad for your health - Although away-from-home eating is adversely associated with weight, other comorbidities have not been examined; therefore, we sought to determine the associations of fast food (e.g. Wendy's, McDonalds) and restaurant (sit-down style) consumption (times per week) with weight and multiple metabolic outcomes. Adjusted change in weekly restaurant and fast food intake was associated with 13-y changes in body weight, and waist circumference. Fast food consumption may be an important target for the prevention of adverse metabolic health outcomes.

10. Whole grains reduce risk of cardiovascular disease - The U.S. FDA defines whole grains as consisting of the intact, ground, cracked, or flaked fruit of the grains whose principal components, the starchy endosperm, germ, and bran, are present in the same relative proportions as they exist in the intact grain. A whole grain and reduced risk of CVD health claim is supported when using a broader concept of whole grain to include studies that considered intake of fiber-rich bran and germ as well as whole grain.

11. High protein diet does not reduce bone strength - Long-term consumption of high-protein (HP) diets at 35% of energy was postulated to negatively influence bone health. In conclusion, HP diets at 35% of energy lower body fat content without hindering the mechanical and weight-bearing properties of bone.

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