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J Nutrition November, 2006

[Fruits, veggies, spices, tea prevent cancer]Quercetin Induces Apoptosis via Caspase Activation... in a Human Hepatoma Cell Line (HepG2) J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2715-2721 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2715] "Dietary polyphenols [esp. flavonoids] have been associated with the reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, but the precise underlying mechanism of protection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of quercetin on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in a human hepatoma cell line...These data suggest that quercetin may induce apoptosis by direct activation of caspase cascade (mitochondrial pathway) and by inhibiting survival signaling in HepG2."

[Fishoils benefit eye and brain development, immune and circulatory function, blood clotting, and prevent cardiac arrhythmias.] Triglycerides in Fish Oil Affect the Blood Clearance of Lipid Emulsions Containing Long- and Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Mice J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2766-2772 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2766] "Recently, fish oil (FO) triglyceride (TG)-derived emulsions are considered therapeutic because of their many beneficial biological modulatory actions...These data suggest that the addition of a low percentage of FO to MCT:LCT emulsions substantially changes their particle clearance and tissue uptake mechanisms."

[caffeine and EGCG-tea components - prevent fat absorption from intestine] Epigallocatechin Gallate and Caffeine Differentially Inhibit the Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol and Fat in Ovariectomized Rats J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2791-2796 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2791] " We conducted this study to determine whether green tea constituents, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and caffeine, affect the intestinal absorption of cholesterol (CH), fat, and other fat-soluble compounds. ..The results indicate that both EGCG and caffeine inhibit lipid absorption and that the inhibitory effects of the 2 tea constituents are not synergistic but mediated by distinctly different mechanisms. "

[Tomato/lycopene prevent prostate cancer] Serum Testosterone Is Reduced Following Short-Term Phytofluene, Lycopene, or Tomato Powder Consumption in F344 Rats J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2813-2819 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2813] " Elevated serum androgens are associated with increased prostate cancer risk. Tomato consumption is also associated with reduced prostate cancer incidence, and the primary tomato carotenoid, lycopene, may modulate androgen activation in the prostate, yet little is known about other tomato carotenoids. ..Overall, results illustrate that short-term intake of tomato carotenoids significantly alters androgen status, which may partially be a mechanism by which tomato intake reduces prostate cancer risk."

[Pregnant women need to take folate supplements ] One-Third of Pregnant and Lactating Women May Not Be Meeting Their Folate Requirements from Diet Alone Based on Mandated Levels of Folic Acid Fortification J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2820-2826 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2820] " Many women are advised to consume a folic acid–containing prenatal supplement for the duration of pregnancy and lactation. ..To conclude, at mandated levels of fortification many pregnant and lactating women are unlikely to meet their folate requirements from dietary sources alone... "

[flaxseed oil of limited benefit] Flaxseed Oil Supplementation Does Not Affect Plasma Lipoprotein Concentration or Particle Size in Human Subjects J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2844-2848 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2844] "-Linolenic acid (ALA) is a major dietary (n-3) fatty acid. Some clinical trials with ALA supplementation have shown reduced cardiovascular risk..."[ed. note - (n-3) or omega-3 fatty acids come in different lengths. Those from fish oil are longer than those from flaxseed, and only fish oil (or bluegreen algae) have profound benefits to health.]

[glucosamine appears to be safe] Glucosamine Supplementation Accelerates Early but Not Late Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor–Deficient Mice J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2856-2861 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2856] " Glucosamine, commonly consumed for the treatment of osteoarthritis, is classified as a nutritional supplement; however, there are few data regarding its metabolic or vascular effects. Glucosamine is a component of the hexosamine pathway, which has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance. ..Thus, glucosamine supplementation appears to be safe, with no adverse vascular consequences."

[Quercetin, from blueberries, onions, kale, broccoli, leeks, inhibits colon cancer] Quercetin, but Not Its Glycosidated Conjugate Rutin, Inhibits Azoxymethane-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in F344 Rats
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2862-2867 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2862] " The effect of the flavonoid quercetin and its conjugate rutin was investigated on (biomarkers of) colorectal cancer ... In conclusion, quercetin, but not rutin, at a high dose reduced colorectal carcinogenesis..." "found in fruits and vegetables, including blueberries, onions, kale, broccoli, and leeks..."

[Eating better may make you drink better] Adults with Healthier Dietary Patterns Have Healthier Beverage Patterns
J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2901-2907[http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2901] " There is an absence of research examining associations between food and beverage intake patterns and most research has centered on soft drinks, whereas research on overall beverage patterns is absent...persons who had a healthier food pattern had a higher probability of having a noncaloric beverage pattern than persons who did not. Increasing awareness of both the contribution of calorie-containing beverages to overall energy intake and dietary patterns associated with these beverages helps inform policies targeted at reducing energy intake in the population."

[Older, thinner, non-smoking, vitamin-taking women pay most attention to diet]The 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Adherence Index: Development and Application J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2908-2915 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2908] " The sixth edition of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) was released in January 2005, with revised healthy eating recommendations for all adult Americans. We developed the 2005 Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI) as a measure of adherence to the key dietary intake recommendations...Those with higher DGAI scores were more likely to be women, older, multivitamin supplement users, and have a lower BMI and less likely to be smokers."

[Diet rich in fruit, veggies, cereals, low in meat, with olive oil as main added fat, reduces obesity] Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet Is Associated with Reduced 3-Year Incidence of Obesity J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2934-2938 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2934] " Few studies have prospectively examined dietary patterns and adult weight change, and results to date are inconsistent. This study examines whether a Mediterranean diet (MD) pattern is associated with reduced 3-y incidence of obesity ... sample included 17,238 women and 10,589 men not obese and aged 29–65 y at baseline ...results suggest that promoting eating habits consistent with MD patterns may be a useful part of efforts to combat obesity."

[elderly poverty is horrible in the US] Seasonal Variation in Food Insecurity Is Associated with Heating and Cooling Costs among Low-Income Elderly Americans J. Nutr. 2006 136: 2939-2944 [http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/content/abstract/136/11/2939] " In this study we examine the association between household food insecurity and seasonally high heating and cooling costs...In light of recent sharp increases in home heating and cooling costs in many parts of the U.S., it is important to understand the extent to which households make tradeoffs between heating and cooling costs and other basic needs that affect their food security."

OTHER ARTICLES WORTH MENTIONING: CLAs from milk reduce breast milk fat production; protein content of diet when a woman is pregnant is not a great concern; DNA base consumption aids memory; fruit and vegetable soups are useful

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