You must read and accept the disclaimer to use this site. Updated for Nov. 7, 2010

AJCN Nov, 2010 -DETAILS- GOOD NUTRITION FOR ALL1. Mediterranean diet keeps people healthy - The Mediterranean diet has long been reported to be the optimal diet for preventing noncommunicable diseases and preserving good health (1–3). The Mediterranean-style diet is not a specific diet, but rather a collection of eating habits traditionally followed by people in the different countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea. The diet refers to a dietary profile commonly available in the early 1960s in the Mediterranean regions and characterized by a high consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes, and complex carbohydrates, with a moderate consumption of fish, and the consumption of olive oil as the main source of fats and a low-to-moderate amount of red wine during meals. This updated meta-analysis confirms, in a larger number of subjects and studies, the significant and consistent protection provided by adherence to the Mediterranean diet in relation to the occurrence of major chronic degenerative diseases.

2. Higher antioxidant levels correlate with higher cognitive function - We evaluated the total antioxidant capacity of diets on the basis of the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay in relation to cognition in older women in 16,010 participants aged ≥70 y. There was an association between higher total FRAP scores and better cognitive function at the first interview.

3. Fish oil reduces prostate cancer deaths - Conclusion: Our analyses provide no strong evidence of a protective association of fish consumption with prostate cancer incidence but showed a significant 63% reduction in prostate cancer–specific mortality.

4. In contrast to a recent article in Prevention magazine, multivitamin use decreases the risk of heart attacks - The study included 31,671 women with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and 2262 women with a history of CVD aged 49–83 y from Sweden. The use of multivitamins for ≥5 y was associated with 41% fewer heart attacks.

5. Total omega-3 intakes were 57–80% lower in non-fish-eaters than in fish-eaters, comparing fish-eaters and non-fish-eating meat-eaters, vegetarians, or vegans. Shorter linolenic acid is not sufficiently converted to DHA, so supplements are necessary.

6. Concord grape juice is best breakfast drink - Hypertension affects >25% of the US adult population. In the well-controlled Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) study, a low-fat diet rich in fruit and vegetables lowered blood pressure (4). Grapes are rich in flavonoids, and a body of work suggests that consumption of grapes and grape-containing products might lower blood pressure (5). We observed no effect of grape juice on ambulatory blood pressure in this cohort of relatively healthy individuals with modestly elevated blood pressure. Secondary analyses suggested favorable effects on nocturnal dip and glucose homeostasis that may merit further investigation.

7. Human muscle synthesis peaks 2 hours after eating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) - We previously showed that human muscle protein synthesis (MPS) increased during infusion of amino acids (AAs) and peaked at {approx}120 min before returning to baseline rates.

8. Postmenopausal (PM) women REALLY need more choline - Phosphatidylcholine synthesis is induced by estrogen. Only 2% of PM women get enough in the diet. This causes muscle and liver dysfunction.

9. Coffee and tea reduce risk of brain tumors - In this large cohort study, we observed an inverse association between total coffee and tea consumption and risk of glioma.

OBESITY 10. Whole grains make you thin, refined grains make you fat - Conclusions: Increasing whole-grain intake is associated with lower visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in adults, whereas higher intakes of refined grains are associated with higher VAT.

11. Vitamin D and calcium enhance weight loss - We analyzed data from participants in the 2-y Dietary Intervention Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT) [mean age: 52 y]. Conclusion: Our study suggests that both higher dairy calcium intake and increased serum vitamin D are related to greater diet-induced weight loss. Top group lost about 6 lbs per year.

12. Emotional eating and physical activity self-efficacy as pathways in the association between depressive symptoms and obesity - Elevated depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating. Psychological factors related to both eating and PA may be relevant in explaining the positive relation between depressive symptoms and adiposity. Interventions that target obesity should take into account the effects of these factors on weight regulation.

13. Eating hot spicy foods burns calories - The objective was to determine the acute and chronic effect of dihydrocapsiate on resting metabolic rate (RMR). After 1 mo of supplementation, 3 mg of dihydrocapsiate had a small thermogenic effect of {approx}50 kcal/d.

ESPECIALLY FOR MOTHERS AND CHILDREN 14. Effect of mother's weight on infant's microbiota - Results: Infants’ fecal microbial composition was related to the weight and weight gain of their mothers during pregnancy. Fecal Bacteroides and Staphylococcus concentrations were significantly higher in infants of overweight mothers during the first 6 mo. Higher weights and BMIs of mothers were related to higher concentrations of Bacteroides, Clostridium, and Staphylococcus and lower concentrations of the Bifidobacterium group. Prevalences of Akkermansia muciniphila, Staphylococcus, and Clostridium difficile groups were lower in infants of normal-weight mothers and of mothers with normal weight gains during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The composition and development of infant gut microbiota are influenced by BMI, weight, and weight gain of mothers during pregnancy.

15. Caffeine may be okay during pregnancy - Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we observed no important association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth for cohort and case-control studies.

16. Early infant weight gain leads to obesity - There is a causal link between faster early weight gain and a later risk of obesity.

17. Pregnant women need to learn fish oil is very beneficial - Many women knew that fish might contain mercury, a neurotoxin, and had received advice to limit fish intake. Fewer women knew that fish contains DHA or what the function of DHA is. Pregnant women might be willing to eat more fish if this were advised by their obstetricians ...

18. Zinc reduces depression and anxiety in malnourished school children - Increases in serum zinc concentrations were associated with decreases in internalizing symptoms (ie, depression and anxiety) in a community-based sample of children at risk of zinc deficiency.

19. Prevalence of childhood obesity is rapidly increasing - Results: In 2010, 43 million children (35 million in developing countries) were estimated to be overweight and obese; 92 million were at risk of overweight. The worldwide prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 4.2% in 1990 to 6.7% in 2010. This trend is expected to reach 9.1% or 60 million, in 2020.

WARNINGS 20. Eating meat increases heart disease - Higher intake of animal protein may be associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease in "healthy" men.

21. Omega-3 (fish) intake keeps telomeres longer, omega-6 (4-legged animal) intake shortens them - As the subject of aging receives increasing attention, much research is being devoted to the identification of biomarkers for age-related diseases. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a focal point of this research. Omega-3 maintains LTL, omega-6 shortens LTL.

POLITICS AND PUBLIC HEALTH 22. Quality foods are more expensive, but spending wisely cuts costs - consumer research shows that food cost is the single most important factor influencing household food purchasing decisions (3). However, differences in dietary quality were evident within each spending quintile, suggesting that improvements in diet might be achieved without increased spending. Bernstein et al recommend increased spending on nuts, soy, beans, and whole grains, at the expense of meat and dairy,...

23. Healthy food is more expensive - Conclusions: Grains and sugars food groups were cheaper than vegetables and fruit per calorie and were cheaper than fruit per serving. These price differentials may help to explain why low-cost, energy-dense foods that are nutrient poor are associated with lower education and incomes.


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