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J Nutrition Oct, 2010 -See this, longer synopses, and links to published articles below or at Nutrition investigator .

SYNOPSES OF ARTICLES THIS MONTH

1. Up to 90% of Americans fail to meet dietary guidelines - A longstanding goal of dietary surveillance has been to estimate the proportion of the population with intakes above or below a target, such as a recommended level of intake...Usual dietary intake distributions were modeled, accounting for sequence effect, weekend/weekday effect, sex, age, poverty income ratio, and race/ethnicity. The majority of the population did not meet recommendations for all of the nutrient-rich food groups, except total grains and meat and beans. Concomitantly, overconsumption of energy from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages ("empty calories") was ubiquitous. Over 80% of persons age ≥71 y and over 90% of all other sex-age groups had intakes of empty calories that exceeded the discretionary calorie allowances.

2. Omega-3s in diet reduce inflammation and oxidative stress - Two major causes of chronic disease less harmful when fishoil, flax, and other omega-3s are eaten.

3. Study of antioxidants and minerals shows vitamin C reduces reflux esophagitis (GERD), antioxidants reduce esophageal cancer.

4. Blueberries improve sensitivity to insulin in obese, diabetic, and even healthy people.

5. Green peppers, celery, parsley protect brain function - Luteolin is a nutrient found in those foods and camomille tea. A dysregulated overexpression of inflammatory mediators by microglia may facilitate cognitive aging and neurodegeneration. Considerable evidence suggests the flavonoid luteolin has antiinflammatory effects,...the current findings suggest dietary luteolin enhanced spatial working memory by mitigating microglial-associated inflammation in the hippocampus. Therefore, luteolin consumption may be beneficial in preventing or treating conditions involving increased microglial cell activity and inflammation

6. Salt may harm heart and lungs - High salt intake may cause stiffening of the lungs, in addition to heart hypertrophy and high blood pressue.

7. Fish oil reduces metabolic syndrome risk - Risk cut in half for Puerto Ricans living in Boston who ate the most fish or fish oil. But soft drinks, refined grains, pastries, and tortillas increased risk about 50%.

8. Low calcium intake causes tooth loss in men - Ca intake below recommendations was significantly associated with fewer teeth in both sexes. Given the high percentage of individuals with Ca intake below recommendations [in Denmark], consumption of foods rich in Ca should be promoted to preserve oral health.

9. Year long intervention to improve diet and exercise in 10 year olds had only modest effects.

10. Price changes alone do not produce long-term dietary change - So taxing foods contributing to obesity may not be an effective national policy.

11. North American aboriginal children face ricketts - Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (<75 nmol/L) among preschoolers was 78.6% and 96.8% in summer and winter, respectively.

12. Effects of famine vary with age - Hunger during pregnancy and infancy after age 3 reduced BMI.

 

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